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A Documentary History, Volumes 1 and 2

Edited by Sven Saaler and Christopher W. A. Szpilman

This two-volume set provides the only comprehensive, Western-language history of Pan-Asianism through primary sources and commentaries. The book argues that Pan-Asianism, often—though unfairly—associated with the Yellow Peril, has been a powerful political and ideological force in modern Asia. It has shaped national identities and strongly influenced the development of international relations across Asia and the Pacific. Scholars have long recognized the importance of Pan-Asianism as an ideal of Asian solidarity, regional cooperation, and integration but also as an ideology that justified imperialist expansion and military aggression. Yet sustained research has been hampered by the difficulty of accessing primary sources.

Thoroughly remedying this problem, this unique sourcebook provides a wealth of documents on Pan-Asianism from 1850 to the present, many translated for the first time from Asian languages. All sources are accompanied by expert commentaries that provide essential background information. Providing an essential overview of Pan-Asianism as it developed throughout modern Asia, this collection will be an indispensable tool for scholars in history, political science, international relations, and sociology. Its accessible presentation makes it a valuable resource for non-specialists as well.

Contributions by: Cemil Aydin, Roger H. Brown, Yuan P. Cai, Kristine Dennehy, Prasenjit Duara, Eddy Dufourmont, Peter Duus, Selçuk Esenbel, Curtis Anderson Gayle, Jung-Sun N. Han, Hatsuse Ryuhei, Jing He, Eri Hotta, Joël Joos, Kim Bongjin, Kyu Hyun Kim, Eun-jeung Lee, Stefano von Loë, Ethan Mark, Matsuda Koichiro, Marc Andre Matten, Muto Shutaro, Li Narangoa, Sven Saaler, Michael A. Schneider, Kyoko Selden, Mark Selden, Alistair Swale, Christopher W. A. Szpilman, Brij Tankha, Christian Uhl, Torsten Weber, Renée Worringer, and Urs Matthias Zachmann.
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Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Pages: 768Size: 6 x 9
978-1-4422-0602-1 • Hardback • 2 vol set • April 2011 • $182.00 • (£120.00)
Sven Saaler is associate professor of modern Japanese history at Sophia University, Tokyo. Christopher W. A. Szpilman is professor of modern Japanese history and international relations at Kyushu Sangyo University, Fukuoka.
Volume 1
Introduction: The Emergence of Pan-Asianism as an Ideal of Asian Identity and Solidarity, 1850–2008
Sven Saaler and Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Part I: The Dawn of Pan-Asianism, 1850–1900
Chapter 1: The Concept of "Asia" before Pan-Asianism
Matsuda Koichiro
Chapter 2: The Foundation Manifesto of the Koakai (Raising Asia Society) and the Ajia Kyokai (Asia Association), 1880–1883
Urs Matthias Zachmann
Chapter 3: The Genyosha (1881) and Premodern Roots of Japanese Expansionism
Joël Joos
Chapter 4:
Koa—Raising Asia: Arao Sei and Inoue Masaji
Michael A. Schneider
Chapter 5: Tarui Tokichi’s
Arguments on Behalf of the Union of the Great East, 1893
Kyu Hyun Kim
Chapter 6: Konoe Atsumaro and the Idea of an Alliance of the Yellow Race, 1898
Urs Matthias Zachmann
Chapter 7: Okakura Tenshin: "Asia Is One," 1903
Brij Tankha
Chapter 8: Okakura Tenshin and Pan-Asianism, 1903–1906
Jing He
Part II: The Era of Imperialism and Pan-Asianism in Japan, 1900–1914
Chapter 9: The Foundation Manifesto of the Toa Dobunkai (East Asian Common Culture Society), 1898
Urs Matthias Zachmann
Chapter 10: The Kokuryukai, 1901–1920
Sven Saaler
Chapter 11: Miyazaki Toten’s Pan-Asianism, 1915–1919
Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Chapter 12: Pan-Asianism, the "Yellow Peril," and Suematsu Kencho, 1905
Sven Saaler
Chapter 13: Hatano Uho:
Asia in Danger, 1912
Renée Worringer
Chapter 14: Nagai Ryutaro: "The White Peril," 1913
Peter Duus
Part III: Asian Responses to Imperialism and Japanese Pan-Asianism, 1900–1922
Chapter 15: So Chaep'il: Editorials from
Tongnip Sinmun (The Independent), 1898–1899
Kim Bongjin
Chapter 16: Zhang Taiyan and the Asiatic Humanitarian Brotherhood, 1907
Yuan P. Cai
Chapter 17: Aurobindo Ghose: "The Logic of Asia," 1908–1909
Brij Tankha
Chapter 18: Sin Ch'ae-ho: "A Critique of Easternism," 1909
Kim Bongjin
Chapter 19:
Abdürresid Ibrahim: "The World of Islam and the Spread of Islam in Japan," 1910
Selçuk Esenbel
Chapter 20: An Chung-gun: "A Discourse on Peace in East Asia," 1910
Eun-jeung Lee
Chapter 21: Benoy Kumar Sarkar: The Asia of the Folk, 1916
Brij Tankha
Chapter 22: Li Dazhao: "Greater Asianism and New Asianism," 1919
Marc Andre Matten
Chapter 23: Kurban Ali and the Tatar Community in Japan, 1922
Selçuk Esenbel
Chapter 24: Rash Behari Bose: The Indian Independence Movement and Japan
Eri Hotta
Part IV: The Breakdown of the Imperialist Order: World War I and Pan-Asianism, 1914–1920
Chapter 25: Germany, Sun Yat-sen and Pan-Asianism, 1917–1923
Sven Saaler
Chapter 26: Pan-Asianism during and after World War I: Kodera Kenkichi (1916),
Sawayanagi Masataro (1919), and Sugita Teiichi (1920)
Sven Saaler
Chapter 27: Kita Ikki: "An Unofficial History of the Chinese Revolution," 1915, and "The Outline of a Plan for the Reconstruction of Japan," 1919
Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Chapter 28: Tokutomi Soho and the "Asiatic Monroe Doctrine," 1917
Alistair Swale
Chapter 29: Paul Richard:
To Japan, 1917, and The Dawn over Asia, 1920
Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Chapter 30: Kita Reikichi: "Misunderstood Asianism" and "The Great Mission of Our Country," 1917
Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Chapter 31: Taraknath Das: Pan-Asian Solidarity as a "Realist" Grand Strategy, 1917–1918
Cemil Aydin
Chapter 32: Konoe Fumimaro: "A Call to Reject the Anglo-American Centered Peace," 1918
Eri Hotta

Volume 2
Introduction: The Emergence of Pan-Asianism as an Ideal of Asian Identity and Solidarity, 1850–2008
Sven Saaler and Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Part I: The Radicalization of Japanese Pan-Asianism and Intra-Asian Disputes, 1920–1930
Chapter 1: Nakano Seigo: Populist, Fascist, Pan-Asianist, 1917–1942
Stefano von Loë
Chapter 2: The Yuzonsha’s “War Cry,” 1920
Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Chapter 3: Japan, Korea, and Pan-Asianism: The Dokokai, 1921
Sven Saaler
Chapter 4: Okawa Shumei: “Various Problems of Asia in Revival,” 1922
Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Chapter 5: Sun Yat-sen: “Pan-Asianism,” 1924
Roger H. Brown
Chapter 6: Tanaka Ippei: “Islam and Pan-Asianism,” 1924
Eddy Dufourmont
Chapter 7: The Greater India Society: Indian Culture and an Asian Federation
Brij Tankha
Chapter 8: The Pan-Asiatic Society and the “Conference of Asian Peoples” in Nagasaki, 1926
Sven Saaler
Chapter 9: Raja Mahendra Pratap: Indian Independence, Asian Solidarity, World Federation, 1930
Sven Saaler
Part II: Pan-Asianism and Japanese Responses to Fascism and Totalitarianism, 1930–1937
Chapter 10: Hosoi Hajime: “Japan’s Resolve,” 1932
Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Chapter 11: Mori Kaku: “Extraordinary Means for Extraordinary Times,” 1932
Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Chapter 12: Matsumoto Gaku and the Japan Culture League, 1933
Roger H. Brown
Chapter 13: The Greater Asia Association and Matsui Iwane, 1933
Torsten Weber
Chapter 14: Kanokogi Kazunobu: “Imperial Asia,” 1937
Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Chapter 15: Nagai Ryutaro: “Holy War for the Reconstruction of Asia,” 1937
Roger H. Brown
Part III: Pan-Asianism and the Quest for Empire and a “New Order” in Asia, 1937–1940
Chapter 16: Japanese Pan-Asianism in Manchukuo, 1935
Prasenjit Duara
Chapter 17: The Konoe Cabinet’s “Declaration of a New Order in East Asia,” 1938
Roger H. Brown
Chapter 18: Royama Masamichi and the
“Principles of an East Asian Cooperative Community,” 1938
Jung-Sun N. Han
Chapter 19: Miyazaki Masayoshi: “On the East Asian League,” 1938
Michael A. Schneider
Chapter 20: Ozaki Hotsumi: “The Ideal of the ‘East Asian Cooperative Body’ and the Objective Basis for Its Formation,” 1939
Eri Hotta
Chapter 21: Hiranuma Kiichiro: “The New Asiatic Order,” 1939
Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Chapter 22: Ishiwara Kanji’s “Argument for an East Asian League,” 1940
Roger H. Brown
Chapter 23: Nanjing’s Greater Asianism: Wang Jingwei and Zhou Huaren, 1940
Torsten Weber
Part IV: Pan-Asianism and World War II, 1940–1945
Chapter 24: Matsuoka Yosuke and the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere, 1941
Sven Saaler
Chapter 25: The First Greater East Asia Writers Conference, 1942
Eddy Dufourmont
Chapter 26: Indonesian Nationalism and Wartime Asianism: Essays from the “Culture” Column of Greater Asia, 1942
Ethan Mark
Chapter 27: The Assembly of the Greater East Asiatic Nations, 1943
Li Narangoa
Chapter 28: Women Leaders and Pan-Asianism in Wartime Japan: Ichikawa Fusae (1940), Takamure Itsue (1940), and Inoue Hide (1944)
Michael A. Schneider
Chapter 29: Yasuoka Masahiro: “Education for Japanese Capable of Being Leaders of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere,” 1942
Roger H. Brown
Chapter 30: Hirano Yoshitaro: “The Historical Basis of Greater Asianism,” 1945
Muto Shutaro
Part V: Pan-Asianism during the Cold War, 1945–1989
Chapter 31: K. M. Panikkar: “Asia and Western Dominance,” 1953
Christopher W. A. Szpilman
Chapter 32: Eguchi Bokuro: “Asia in World History,” 1953
Curtis Anderson Gayle
Chapter 33: The Bandung Conference, 1955
Kristine Dennehy
Chapter 34: Hayashi Fusao: “Affirmation of the Greater East Asian War,” 1963
Kristine Dennehy
Chapter 35: Takeuchi Yoshimi: “Japan’s Asianism,” 1963
Christian Uhl
Part VI: Pan-Asianism, Regionalization, and Globalization, 1989–Present
Chapter 36: Ogura Kazuo: “A Call for a New Concept of Asia,” 1993
Kristine Dennehy
Chapter 37: Mahathir Mohamad and Shintaro Ishihara: “The Voice of Asia,” 1995
Kristine Dennehy
Chapter 38: Koo Jong-suh: “Pan-Asianism. Primacy of East Asia,” 1995
Eun-jeung Lee
Chapter 39: Japan and Southeast Asian Regional Integration: Prime Minister Koizumi in Singapore, 2002
Kristine Dennehy
Chapter 40: Nakamura Tetsu and the Peshawar-kai, 2003
Hatsuse Ryuhei
Chapter 41: Wang Yi: “China’s ‘New Asianism’ for the Twenty-First Century,” 2006
Torsten Weber
Chapter 42: Wada Haruki: “Maritime Asia and the Future of a Northeast Asia Community,” 2008
Kyoko and Mark Selden
The first substantial compilation of materials on the topic in the English language . . . [which] not only fulfills the historiographical gap and teaching needs but also opens up further research into the subject. . . . The editors do not assume a coherent Pan-Asianism; rather, the strength of this collection lies in its acknowledgment of varieties, tensions, and changes within various voices of Pan-Asianism. . . . Each short chapter comes with an informative, easy-to-follow essay as well as translations of primary materials, making the collection ideal for undergraduate teaching. . . . Despite the sense of taboo around the subject of pan-Asianism, or rather because of it, carefully contextualized analyses of its history are highly important. Not only for teachers but also for any critical readers of Asian history and contemporary discussions of Asian integration, Pan-Asianism is a welcome and invaluable collection.
East Asia Integration Studies

These engaging tomes . . . offer a mint of scholarship on what has long been a troubling issue to decipher for students limited to the English language; namely, what is the deal with Pan-Asianism? . . . The question has long been of interest but few were the tools one could employ to gain insight or even access to more than mere cursory introductions. These books change the nature of that game [with] a two-volume set of fine translations covering the 19th and 20th centuries (with a bit into the 21st), focusing on a wide variety of well-known, and some lesser known, ideologues (Japanese and other) on the topic of pan-Asianism. . . . This is a set for any library and to serve as a reference on [researchers’] shelves. . . . These books bring an enormous span of disparate writings together, an exceedingly admirable goal even without the translations and introductions. . . . Each selection is preceded with a clear explanation from the translator, noting the significance and providing some background on the text itself. Sometimes the introductions or explanatory sections are longer than the actual translation, and that is fine because these volumes offer precisely that to the beginning reader an introduction. I can think of no better set of current volumes on the market that offer this wealth in terms of both coverage, depth of explanation, and then actual translation of primary text, to readers in English . . . . Saaler and Szpilman should be commended on being able both to corral an army of able and intellectually gifted scholars from around the world and get them to produce translations and introductions in this multi-layered collection of tracts from the last century and a half. . . . I can only imagine the effort put forward in producing this publication and the two volumes sit proudly on my shelf, already well-thumbed as I paw through them looking for insight.
Barack Kushner; Reviews in History

The publication of Pan-Asianism is a seminal event: until now it has been almost impossible to find translations on this strand of thought. . . . [I]n its scope and variety this easily is the best sourcebook on Pan-Asianism available in any language. Every academic library on Japan should stock this collection, and many scholars on modern Japan and Asia will benefit from owning it.
Monumenta Nipponica

Finally there is an excellent source book on Pan-Asianism, an ideology that has played an important role in Japan's regional interactions since the late 19th century. These two volumes are essential for any university or research library as they cover modern Asian history from the mid-19th century until the present. The set is an incredibly good value because it provides access to a comprehensive range of translated materials that encompass a number of languages. The contributors preface their translations with useful commentary that help readers understand the significance of what they are about to read, making this very useful for students and scholars. . . . A treasure trove of primary documents, some translated into English for the first time.
Japan Times

[A] welcome addition to an on-going conversation and a substantial resource for both scholars and students. . . . [T]his two-volume collection of documents brings together prominent visions of Asia from across the region and over nearly two centuries, all carefully placed in historical and intellectual context by thoughtful introductions from a long list of contributing scholars. . . . [R]emarkable in part for its breadth: geographical, chronological and ideological.
Pacific Affairs

This is an extraordinary undertaking, simply breathtaking in the range of writings it introduces to an English-speaking readership. The two volumes contain Pan-Asian writings by many well-known Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Indian, Indonesian, and Malaysian authors, in addition to manifestos produced by various Pan-Asian organizations. It is particularly helpful that these translations are introduced by essays written by leading scholars in the field. These two books together make an important scholarly contribution by opening up access to an area of modern history that has remained largely impenetrable to many of us.
Naoko Shimazu, University of London

'Pan-Asianism' galvanized—and still galvanizes—political imaginations from Afghanistan to Japan, from the Suez to Sakhalin, in an array of sometimes conflicting projects: defense against 'the West,' internal colonialism, transnational class solidarity, and celebration of religious and other traditions. These volumes, in translating seminal works from many languages and presenting skilled commentary, provide an unprecedented basis for a historical understanding of this perplexing yet vital concept. A gift to scholars and students for years to come.
Julia Adeney Thomas, University of Notre Dame