This book charts the shifting boundaries of Judaism from antiquity to the modern period in order to bring clarity to what scholars mean when they claim that ancient texts or groups are “within Judaism,” as well as exploring how rabbinic Jews, Christians, and Muslims have negotiated and renegotiated what Judaism is and is not in order to form their own identities. Belief in Jesus as the Messiah was seen as part of first-century Judaism, but by the fourth or fifth century, the boundaries had shifted and adherence to Jesus came to be seen as outside of Judaism. Resituating New Testament texts within first- or second-century Judaism is an historical exercise that may broaden our view of what Judaism looked like in the early centuries CE, but normatively these texts remain within Christianity because of their reception history. The historical “within Judaism” perspective, however, has the potential to challenge and reshape the theology of contemporary Christianity while at the same time the long-held consensus that belief in Jesus cannot belong within Judaism is again challenged by the modern Messianic Jewish movement.
Karin Hedner Zetterholm is associate professor of Jewish Studies at Lund University.
Anders Runesson is professor of New Testament at the University of Oslo.
Part I. The “Within Judaism” Perspective: What’s at Stake?
1. The “Within Judaism” Perspective: Why Does It Matter?
2. What Does “Within Judaism” Mean? Some Thoughts on Method, History, and Theology
3. What’s in a Label? “Jews,” “Judaism,” and “Jewish” in the Study of Antiquity
4. What’s in a Translation?
Mark D. Nanos
5. Gender, Judaism, and the Jesus Movement: What Change Does “Within” Bring?
6. Attending to Power: “Within Judaism” Scholarship and the Erasure of History
Part II. The First and Second Centuries: Reading New Testament Texts Within Judaism
7. Paul Within Judaism
8. Mark Within Judaism
John Van Maaren
9. Matthew Within Judaism
10. Luke Within Judaism
Joshua Paul Smith and Matthew Thiessen
11. Acts Within Judaism
Isaac W. Oliver
12. John Within Judaism
Wally V. Cirafesi
13. Revelation Within Judaism
Ralph J. Korner
14. James Within Judaism
Part III. From the Third Century to the Rise of Islam: New Boundaries Emerge
15. Jesus Within Third- and Fourth-Century Judaism: The Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions 1.27–71 and the Homilies
Karin Hedner Zetterholm
16. 2 Enoch Within Judaism? Erudite Eclecticism in Late Antiquity
17. Augustine on Jesus and Paul Within Judaism
18. John Chrysostom Draws a Line
19. Within Israel: A Rabbinic Perspective
20. What Falls Within Judaism According to the Quran? Q5 Sūrat al-Māʾida 44–47 as Critique of Mishnah Avot 1:1
21. Judaism Within Islam? Jews and Judaism in Early Islamic Sources
Part IV. Present-Day Judaism and Christianity
22. “Within Judaism” in Contemporary Jewish Life
Elliot N. Dorff
23. Can Jesus as Messiah Find a Place Within Twenty-First Century Judaism? The Messianic Jewish Challenge
Mark S. Kinzer and Jennifer M. Rosner
24. What Does “Within Judaism” Mean for Catholic Christians Today?
Philip A. Cunningham
25. What Does the “Within Judaism” Perspective Mean for Protestant Christians Today?
William S. Campbell and Kathy Ehrensperger
This is a really remarkable book. Even as debates over situating New Testament texts “within Judaism” continue to roil biblical studies, Hedner Zetterholm, Runesson, and their outstanding contributors pause to theorize the question itself, to explore what is at stake, and for whom, and to point to promising ways forward. The authors of the twenty-five chapters are expert guides to a difficult but extremely important field of research. This will be a book to come back to again and again.
This collection is valuable for bringing together in one place a wide range of different approaches to "within Judaism." Readers already familiar with certain topics can benefit from seeing how related analyses are applied to other topics, and those new to "within Judaism" approaches can encounter the fruitful conceptual and historical insights that can come from looking at Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditions from previously-neglected perspectives.