Historically, interventions designed to impact the lives of disabled people were predicated upon deficits-based models of disability. This began to change with the introduction of World Health Organization (WHO) frameworks, particularly the International Classification of Function (ICF), that emphasized that disability could only be understood in the context of interactions among health, environmental factors, and personal factors and by examining the impact of such factors on a person’s activities and participation. The ICF identified personal factors as among the elements of a social-ecological model of disability but did not provide an extensive taxonomy of what constitutes such factors. The Positive Psychology of Personal Factors examines personal factors that come from the field of positive psychology and, as such, to begin to identify and build strengths-based approaches to promoting the full participation, dignity, and well-being of disabled people.
Michael L. Wehmeyer is Ross and Marianna Beach Distinguished Professor at the University of Kansas.
Dana S. Dunn is professor of psychology at Moravian University.
Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health
Michael L. Wehmeyer & Dana S. Dunn
Chapter 2: Positive Psychology and Disability: Focusing on Intrapersonal Strengths
Dana S. Dunn & Michael L. Wehmeyer
Chapter 3: Disability Culture, Identity, and Language
Erin E. Andrews & Anjali J. Forber-Pratt
Chapter 4: Moving Toward Well-Being: Positively Coping with and Adjusting to Chronic Illness and Disability
Susan Miller Smedema, Yunzhen Huang, Hannah Fry, & Alexandra Kriofske Mainella
Chapter 5: Optimism: A Personal Factor for Promoting Functioning and Reducing Disability
Kevin Rand & Mackenzie L. Shanahan
Chapter 6: Self-Determination as a Personal Factor
Michael L. Wehmeyer
Chapter 7: Individual and Interpersonal Aspects of Hope and People with Developmental Disabilities
Malka Margalit, Tomer Schmidt-Barad, & Michal Einav
Chapter 8: Resilience, Disability, and Intrapersonal Factors Viewed through the Lens of Rehabilitation Psychology’s Foundational Principles
Dana S. Dunn
Chapter 9: Personality and Disability
Timothy R. Elliott, Laurel Wade, Sidai Dong, & Katherine Budge
Chapter 10: The Experience of Meaning in Life in the Context of Pain-Related Disability
Devin Guthrie, Brandon Boring, Joseph Maffly-Kipp, Vani A. Mathur, & Joshua A. Hicks
Chapter 11: Negotiating Stigma: Disability in the Workplace
Elisabeth Silver, Elisa S. M. Fattoracci, Timothy Oxendahl, Megan McSpedon, & Mikki Hebl
Chapter 12: Social Support for Adults with Rare Disorders as a Personal and Environmental Factor
Kathleen R. Bogart & Brooke Bryson
Chapter 13: Disability and Life Satisfaction: The Social Nature of Personal Factors
Michelle Nario-Redmond, Thomas Dirth, & Jeffrey Noel
People with disabilities are said to be the largest minority group in the US: 25 percent of American adults live with disabilities. This varied population includes people with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, deafness, AIDS, arthritis, intellectual disabilities, chronic pain, and more. Views of disability have evolved over time. Having shifted from an earlier medical model, which portrayed disabilities from a deficit perspective, the current model is a more sophisticated biopsychological one that permits focusing on the complex interactions between individuals and requires learning about less-obvious elements of disability. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) incorporates this most-current model and encourages concerned researchers and practitioners to consider the interaction between health, environmental factors, and personal factors. In this volume, contributing authors focus specifically on personal factors, adopting a strength-based approach derived from positive psychology. Various authors take a very detailed look at certain strengths generally considered personal factors, including optimism, self-determination, hope, resilience, and social support, all of which have been shown to predict more beneficial outcomes for those with disabilities. Recommended. Graduate students, faculty, and professionals.
Wehmeyer and Dunn have brought together key experts in the field to thoroughly address what we know and where we should be headed to enable people with disabilities to enjoy optimal outcomes with dignity. Individual chapters identify and examine positive psychological personal factors that can provide the foundation for research and practice. This book is a tour de force that will enlighten students as well as seasoned professionals.
Wehmeyer and Dunn astutely position positive psychology as a project to flesh out the psychological elements of the personal factor in the International Classification of Functioning model of disability. By taking up this charge, this volume advances fundamental knowledge in rehabilitation psychology about how psychological processes interact with biological states, social forces, and the physical environment to influence flourishing after onset of disabling injuries or chronic health conditions.
Wehmeyer and Dunn have created an important elaboration of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health by viewing personal factors through the lens of disability and positive psychology. Acknowledging that this work does not imply that environmental factors are less impactful, they have facilitated a deep dive into individual differences expressed through disability-identity, positive psychology and adaptive coping.