The Soviet Union and Cold War Neutrality and Nonalignment in Europe examines how the neutral European countries and the Soviet Union interacted after World War II. Amid the Cold War division of Europe into Western and Eastern blocs, several long-time neutral countries abandoned neutrality and joined NATO. Other countries remained neutral but were still perceived as a threat to the Soviet Union’s sphere of influence. Based on extensive archival research, this volume offers state-of-the-art essays about relations between Europe’s neutral states and the Soviet Union during the Cold War and how these relations were perceived by other powers.
Mark Kramer is director of Cold War studies at Harvard University and senior fellow at Harvard’s Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies.
Aryo Makko is pro futura scientia fellow at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS), professor of history at Stockholm University, and director of the Hans Blix Centre for the History of International Relations.
Peter Ruggenthaler is deputy director and senior research fellow at the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Research on War’s Consequences, Austria.
Introduction, Peter Ruggenthaler and Aryo Makko
PART I. Theories and Practices of Neutrality in Cold War Europe
Chapter 1: Austria’s Neutrality—Myth versus Reality, Franz Cede
Chapter 2: Swedish Neutrality, 1949–1991, Olof Kronvall
Chapter 3: Swiss Cold War Neutrality: Undisputed Principle of Foreign Policy, Thomas Fischer
Chapter 4: Neutrality as Compromises: Finland’s Cold War Neutrality, Johanna Rainio-Niemi
PART II. The Neutrals in Soviet Policy from Stalin to Gorbachev
Chapter 5: Swedish Neutrality: The View from Moscow, Alexey Komarov
Chapter 6: Soviet Attitudes to Finnish Neutralism, 1947–1989, Kimmo Rentola
Chapter 7: A Hidden Danger for the Eastern Bloc? Neutral Austria in Soviet Policy from 1955 to the End of the Cold War, Peter Ruggenthaler
Chapter 8 The Soviet Union and Neutral Switzerland: Concerns and Hopes in 1989, Olga Pavlenko
PART III. The Soviet Union in the Policies of the European Neutrals
Chapter 9: Old Fears, New Realities: Sweden and the Soviet Union during the Cold War, Aryo Makko
Chapter 10: From Aspiration to Consummation and Transition: Finnish Neutrality as Strategy in the Cold War, Kari Möttölä
Chapter 11: Indefinite Coexistence? Austria, the Soviet Union, and Ostpolitik after 1968, Maximilian Graf
Chapter 12: “Always Hit Back Right on the Kisser?”: The Soviet Union in Swiss Foreign Policy during the Cold War, Sacha Zala, Thomas Bürgisser, and Thomas Fischer
PART IV. Departures from the Eastern Bloc to Neutrality
Chapter 13: Soviet-Yugoslav Relations, 1948–1955: From Conflict to Rapprochement, Andrei Edemskii
Chapter 14: The Neutrality of Hungary during the 1956 Revolution, Csaba Békés
Chapter 15: Albania: Exploiting Relevance and Irrelevance during the Cold War, Robert C. Austin
Chapter 16: The USSR and Yugoslavia’s Policy of Nonalignment, 1955–1980, Nadia Boyadjieva
Chapter 17: How Could the Nonaligned Save Yugoslavia?: The 1989 Summit of the Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade and the Breakup of Yugoslavia, Tvrtko Jakovina
PART V. Western Perspectives on Neutrality and Neutral-Soviet Relations
Chapter 18: The United States and Neutrality in Scandinavia, Jussi M. Hanhimäki
Chapter 19: United States and Austrian Neutrality during the Cold War, Günter Bischof
Chapter 20: The United Kingdom and the European Neutrals during the Cold War, Anne Deighton
Chapter 21: France, the European Neutrals, and the USSR, 1947–1981, Nicolas Badalassi
Chapter 22: Neutrality in the Cold War: Views from West Germany, Andreas Hilger
Chapter 23: NATO and the Neutrals on the Flanks: Finland, Sweden, and Yugoslavia, Milorad Lazic and Magnus Petersson
PART VI. Conclusions
Chapter 24: The USSR and Cold War Neutrality and Nonalignment in Europe, Mark Kramer
[The] book absolutely delivers on its promise to provide a polycentric perspective on neutrality in Cold War Europe. It is going to be the first book to which to point students and scholars who are seeking a comprehensive history of the concept. In that context, I would be remiss not to mention the stellar bibliography of further reading, which lists not just the most important works on the subject, but also takes seriously the different historiographies of neutrality across Europe, and offers a rare collection of key works regardless of the language in which they were published. This book is a very welcome intervention indeed.