The Soviet Union and Cold War Neutrality and Nonalignment in Europe examines how the neutral European countries and the Soviet Union interacted after World War II. Amid the Cold War division of Europe into Western and Eastern blocs, several long-time neutral countries abandoned neutrality and joined NATO. Other countries remained neutral were perceived as a threat to the Soviet Union’s sphere of influence. Based on extensive archival research, this volume offers state-of-the-art essays about relations between Europe’s neutral states and the Soviet Union during the Cold War and how these relations were perceived by other powers.
Mark Kramer is director of Cold War studies at Harvard University and senior fellow at Harvard’s Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies.
Aryo Makko is pro futura scientia fellow at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS), professor of history at Stockholm University, and director of the Hans Blix Centre for the History of International Relations.
Peter Ruggenthaler is deputy director and senior research fellow at the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Research on War’s Consequences, Austria.
PART I. Theories and Practices of Neutrality in Cold War Europe
Chapter 1: Austria’s Neutrality— Myth versus Reality
Chapter 3: Swedish Neutrality, 1949–91
Chapter 4: Swiss Cold War Neutrality: Undisputed Principle of Foreign Policy
PART II. The Neutrals in Soviet Policy from Stalin to Gorbachev
Chapter 5: Swedish Neutrality: The View from Moscow
Chapter 6: Soviet Attitudes to Finnish Neutralism, 1947–1989
Chapter 7: A Hidden Danger for the Eastern Bloc? Neutral Austria in the Soviet Policy from 1955 to the End of the Cold War
Chapter 8: The Soviet Union and Neutral Switzerland: Concerns and Hopes in 1989
PART III. The Soviet Union in the Policies of the European Neutrals
Chapter 9: Old Fears, New Realities: Sweden and the Soviet Union during the Cold War
Chapter 10: From Aspiration to Consummation and Transition: Finnish Neutrality as Strategy in the Cold War
Chapter 11: Infinite Coexistence? Austria, the Soviet Union, and Ostpolitik after 1968
Chapter 12: “Always Hit Back Right on the Kisser?” The Soviet Union in Swiss Foreign Policy during the Cold War
PART IV. Departures from the Eastern Bloc to Neutrality
Chapter 13: Soviet-Yugoslav Relations, 1948–1955: From Conflict to Rapprochement
Chapter 14: The Neutrality of Hungary during the 1956 Revolution
Chapter 15: Albania: Exploiting Relevance and Irrelevance During the Cold War
Chapter 16: How Could the Non-Aligned Save Yugoslavia? The 1989 Summit of the Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade and the Breakup of Yugoslavia
PART V. Western Perspectives on Neutrality and Neutral-Soviet Relations
Chapter 17: The United States and Neutrality in Scandinavia
Chapter 18: United States and Austrian Neutrality during the Cold War
Chapter 19: The United Kingdom and the European Neutrals during the Cold War
Chapter 20: France, the European Neutrals and the USSR, 1947–1981
Chapter 21: Neutrality in the Cold War: A View from West Germany
Chapter 22: NATO and the Neutrals on the Flanks: Finland, Sweden and Yugoslavia