Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Trim: 6 x 9¼
978-1-4422-4941-7 • Hardback • August 2016 • $141.00 • (£108.00)
978-1-78660-657-0 • Paperback • March 2018 • $61.00 • (£47.00)
978-1-4422-4942-4 • eBook • August 2016 • $58.00 • (£45.00)
Bob de Graaff is professor for Intelligence and Security studies at both The Netherlands Defense Academy and the University of Utrecht.
James M. Nyce is professor in the Department of Anthropology, Ball State University, USA. He is also affiliated professor, Lund University, Sweden and has been visiting professor at the Swedish National Defence College 1998-2000, 2005-2011.
About the Contributors
- Wilhelm Agrell, professor in Intelligence Analysis, Lund University, Sweden.
- Gordan Akrap, Croatia.
- Lars Erslev Andersen, research coordinator, Senior Researcher, Danish Institute for International Studies, Copenhagen.
- Gérald Arboit, senior researcher,French Centre for Intelligence Studies.
- Jordan Baev, professor and senior research fellow of security studies, Rakovski National Defense College; visiting professor, Sofia University; and Diplomatic Institute of Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
- Colonel Jacques Baud, currently seconded to NATO by the Swiss government.
- Siegfried Beer, director, Austrian Center for Intelligence, Propaganda and Security Studies..
- Dražen Cerović, Faculty of Law, University of Montenegro.
- Dirk Van Daele, professor, Faculty of Law of the KU (Catholic University) Leuven, Belgium.
- Eric Denécé, director and founder of the French Centre for Intelligence Studies (CF2R).
- Antonio M. Díaz Fernández, professor of politics and administration, University of Cádiz, Spain.
- Arjan Dyrmishi, head of the Centre for European and Security Studies, the Institute for Democracy and Mediation, Tirana, Albania.
- Gunilla Eriksson, Swedish National Defence University.
- Laris Gaiser, researcher at ITSTIME, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy.
- Peter Gill, honorary senior research fellow, University of Liverpool, UK.
- Artur Gruszczak, associate professor of political science, chair of national security, Faculty of International and Political Studies, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
- José Manuel Duarte de Jesus, invited professor, University of Lisbon, Universidade de Aveiro, Institute for High Military Studies, and NOVA University, Portugal.
- Nenad Koprivica, executive director, Centre for Democracy and Human Rights CEDEM, Montenegro.
- Juho Kotakallio, historian, Finland.
- Wolfgang Krieger, professor (ret.) of Modern history and history of international relations, Universität Marburg, Germany.
- Jakob Thor Kristjánsson, independent security analyst and researcher, Akureyri Akademia, Iceland.
- Taras Kuzio, senior research associate, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, University of Alberta.
- Marco Lombardi, director of ITSTIME, the research center of the Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Milan,Italy.
- Eero Medijainen, professor of Contemporary History, University of Tartu, Estonia.
- Matej Medvecký, researcher, Institute for Military History, Slovakia.
- John M. Nomikos, director, Research Institute for European and American Studies, Athens, Greece.
- Eunan O’Halpin, professor of contemporary Irish history, Trinity College, Dublin.
- Maid Pajevic, head of Department for the Agency for Education and Professional Training, Ministry of Security, Bosnia-Herzegovina.
- Predrag Petrović, deputy director, Belgrade Centre for Security Policy, Serbia.
- Iztok Prezelj, associate professor and head of the Chair of Defence Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
- Teresa Ferreira Rodrigues, associate professor, NOVA University, Lisbon, Portugal.
- Jerguš Sivoš, Nation's Memory Institute, Slovakia.
- Prokop Tomek, senior researcher, Military History Institute, Prague, Czech Republic.
- Miroslav Tudjman, professor of Information Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
- Vaidotas Urbelis, Defence Policy Director, Lithuanian Ministry of National Defence.
- Danijela Vujosevic, project manager, Centre for Democracy and Human Rights CEDEM, Montenegro.
- Larry L. Watts, former sector reform advisor to the Romanian Presidency and Defense Ministry (1991-2004), University of Bucharest, Romania.
- Njord Wegge, senior social science advisor to The Norwegian Parliamentary Intelligence Oversight Committee.
List of abbreviations
Introduction (Bob de Graaff & James M. Nyce)
Albania: Change and Continuity (Arjan Dyrmishi)
Austria: An Intelligence Hub Coming Out of the Shadows (Siegfried Beer)
Belgium: A Modern Legal and Policy Framework for Intelligence Services with a Long Tradition (Dirk van Daele)
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Historical Development of the Intelligence and Security System (Maid Pajević)
Bulgaria: A Centenary Unknown History (Jordan Baev)
Croatia: Construction and Deconstruction of the Croatian Intelligence Community (1990-2014) (Gordan Akrap & Miroslav Tuđman)
Czech Republic: The Czech Parth Between Totalitarianism and Democracy (Prokop Tomek)
Denmark: From State Security to Security State. The Invention of Preventive Security (Lars Erslev Andersen)
Estonia: Intelligence and Security in the 20th Century (Iero Medijainen)
Finland: The Intelligence Services in a Cultural and Historical Context (Juho Kotakallio)
France: The Intelligence Services’Historical and Cultural Context (Eric Denécé)
Germany: An Intelligence Community with a Fraught History (Wolfgang Krieger)
Greece: The Need for Modernization in an Unstable Environment (John Nomikos)
Iceland: a Small State Learning the Intelligence Ropes (Jakob Thor Kristjansson)
Ireland: Plus Ca Change, 1945-2015 (Eunan O’Halpin)
Italy: From Secret Services to Intelligence (Marco Lombardi & Laris Gaiser)
Lithuania: The Challenge of Merging the Present and the Past (Vaidotas Urbelis)
Luxembourg: A Country Which Did Not Need an Intelligence Service? (Gérald Arboit)
Montenegro: Trends and Patterns in the intelligence sector (Dražen Cerović, Nenad Koprivica & Danijela Vujošević)
The Netherlands: Allmost Full Circle (Bob de Graaff)
Norway and the intelligence community: Peaceful State, Crucial Geography, Upheaval and Reform (Njord Wegge)
Poland: The Special Services since the Independence (Artur Gruszczak)
Portugal: Peculiarities of the Portuguese Intelligence Services (Teresa Rodrigues and José Duarte de Jesus)
Romania: An Introduction to its Intelligence Services (Larry L. Watts)
Serbia: An Awkward Legacy (Predrag Petrovic)
Slovakia: State Security and Intelligence since 1945 (Matej Medvecký, Jerguš Sivoš)
Slovenia: The Intelligence System, Its Development, and Some Key Challenges (Iztok Prezelj)
Spain: Intelligence in Context Today (Antonio M. Díaz-Fernández)
Sweden: Delicate Liaison (Wilhelm Agrell and Gunilla Eriksson)
Switzerland: Intelligence in the New Security Paradigm (Jacques Baud)
Ukraine: KGB to Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) (Taras Kuzio)
United Kingdom: Organization and Oversight after Snowden (Peter Gill)
A precise, country-by-country overview of European intelligence-gathering methods and security initiatives, this analysis reframes spying in the decades following the Cold War and the dismantling of the Berlin Wall and the rise of terrorism. By compiling commentary from 38 contributors, the editors offer differing approaches to surveillance, anti-radicalization, and border control. Charts, such as the investigative setups in Bosnia, Romania, Montenegro, Slovenia, Portugal, and Luxembourg, simplify chain of command and departmental links. Insights into the security measures of 32 countries offer a basis for comparison and for identification of strengths and weaknesses. This unusual survey of European internal defense systems pinpoints the diverse nature of ideological backgrounds and future threats. Each contributor reveals internal elements unique to politics and culture, for example, Estonia’s emerging independence from Russia, Greece’s need for technological direction, and Spain’s foreign policy in the post-Franco milieu. . . . A valuable text for large public libraries and college and university collections.
This useful volume represents a remarkable editorial accomplishment. Editors de Graaff and Nyce have assembled dozens of scholars and persuaded them to adhere to a common thematic framework to produce 32 separate chapters covering nearly every country in Europe. The result is the first systematic scholarly account of Europe’s widely diverse intelligence communities, including those in countries often overlooked, such as Luxembourg, Montenegro, and Iceland. Students of intelligence will find the collection particularly valuable as a reference source. Each chapter introduces the respective cultures of intelligence, as well as notes and references for further reading. . . .[E]very separate study offers insight into how local environmental factors interact with transnational developments to shape the ways that intelligence is defined, organized, and used. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above.
— Choice Reviews
[Y]ou really get an excellent and well-sourced reference book on who is doing what to whom in the European intelligence world, foibles and all. This book is not cheap, but it is worth it if you are serious about knowing the details of the European intelligence scene.
— The Spy's Bookshelf
[This] is an exceptional text, in English, about national intelligence cultures in some of the most influential countries in Europe. This book is not only a relief for mono-lingual intelligence scholars, but a valuable resource for practitioners as well. It provides insights into intelligence issues in countries that would rarely be available to researchers unless they can read a score of foreign languages.... Handbook of European Intelligence Cultures provides a comprehensive coverage of European intelligence communities that is rarely seen in English language publications. It contains an exhaustive list of abbreviations and acronyms, chapter notes and lists of references cited. It makes an exceptional addition to the bookshelves of theoreticians and practitioners alike.
— Salus Journal
This book, part of the Security and Professional Intelligence Education Series (SPIES), is meant to provide detailed information on a number of little-known European intelligence agencies, as well as allow readers to make comparisons regarding the different approaches of the various organizations. For those who think that libraries have too many acronyms, the 15-page list of abbreviations/acronyms in regards to the multitude of European intelligence agencies provided at the beginning of this book is astounding. The editors provide an excellent review of the literature on this topic, examining each tome in detail and why their book is better and more current. The 32 chapters are arranged alphabetically and provide a wealth of information on the following countries and their intelligence agencies. . . .This reference work is an essential addition to any college or university library.
— American Reference Books Annual
This wide-ranging volume will certainly provide students of the subject with much useful information, previously difficult to find, on the intelligence services of Europe, and can be recommended to any library with appropriate interests.
— Reference Reviews
Since the variety of challenges currently faced by European intelligence services forces them to collaborate more effectively, understanding the different intelligence cultures is of great importance. The Handbook of European Intelligence Cultures, edited by Bob de Graaff and James M. Nyce, provides such deeper understanding. The editors are very well placed for this task. . . . The Handbook thereby provides useful assessments of intelligence issues in countries whose documents are generally unavailable to researchers and practitioners unless they have mastered a variety of foreign languages. . . . In her recently published article in the International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, Irena Chiru explained that “[d]espite a few important steps undertaken in the last four decades, intelligence studies and, subsequently the intelligence culture to which that work is dedicated, may still be considered as an emerging field that can benefit from the careful observation of results and best practices registered in other fields.”11 The realization of the Handbook of European Intelligence Cultures can be considered an important step in that direction.
— International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence
De Graaff and Nyce have performed a valuable service by getting writers on different services to respond to a list of questions on core issues. Perhaps unconsciously, the authors’ responses reveal both similarities and differences—sometimes as much through what they don’t say as what they do.
— Timothy R. Walton, associate professor of Intelligence Analysis at James Madison University, retired CIA officer