Gang Strategies in the Northern Triangle: Coerced Criminality as a Form of Human Trafficking argues for a more robust understanding of the issues, dynamics, and contextual factors of human trafficking. Relying on the definition as established by the Palermo Protocol more than two decades ago, this book takes a hard look at the strategies and results of gang “recruitment” in the Northern Triangle countries as a particular and understudied form of human trafficking—gang trafficking. It offers a lens through which to evaluate the actions of gangs, specifically MS13 and Barrio 18, as they use methods of coercion to force the compliance of youths as de facto gang slaves. By elaborating on this dynamic, and on the risks associated with anti-gang policies and harsh law enforcement practices, Gang Strategies in the Northern Triangle unravels the underlying victimization, exploitation, and criminalization of youths in Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador. The book maintains that the crimes of gang violence and the crimes of human trafficking intertwine and intersect to perpetuate an environment of trauma, exploitation, and hopelessness that leaves thousands with no options, as refugees, conscripted into gangs, incarcerated for crimes they were forced to commit, or dead.
Adam Golob is instructor in political science, interdisciplinary studies, and ethnic/regional studies at Whatcom Community College and Hillsborough Community College.
Chapter 1—The Traditional Human Trafficking Model
Chapter 2—Gang Power
Chapter 3—A Non-Traditional Model of Human Trafficking vis-à-vis Gang Recruitment
Chapter 4—Non-Traditional Victimization
Chapter 5—Northern Triangle Case Studies
Chapter 6—Beyond the State
Adam Golob has written a timely and important book. By focusing on the myriad of reasons why so many citizens of Central America have made the dangerous trek north in the last ten years he has made an important contribution to our understanding of these difficult issues. This book should be read by every US government official with the responsibility to address this human tragedy.
This important work provides new material and meaningful insights about the trafficking of human beings and especially how gangs in the Northern Triangle of Central America control, intimidate and use the people they find, and how they subject them to new forms of human exploitation. It gives and explains new definitions and approaches to human trafficking in Central America…and graphically explains the suffering that so many undergo. It also explores the conditions that compel tens of thousands to flee their homes and risk life and limb to come to the United States. This well documented study provides ample facts and personal stories to make the horrors of such treatment come alive for the reader and is highly recommended.
Golob challenges his readers to look at forced recruitment from a new and more companionate angle. This work is insightful and informative, a must-read for immigration attorneys in the asylum field.