Modernity's Metonyms considers the representation of temporal frameworks in stories by the nineteenth-century Spanish authors, Leopoldo Alas and Antonio Ros de Olano. Adopting a metonymic approach_exploring the reiteration of specific associations across a range of disciplines, from literature, philosophy, historiography, to natural history_Modernity's Metonyms moves beyond the consideration of nineteenth-century Spanish literary modernity in terms of the problem of representation. Through an exploration of the associations prompted by three themes, the railway, food, and suicide, it argues that literary modernity can be considered as the expression of the perception that a linear model of time bringing together the past, the present and the future, was fragmenting into a proliferation of simultaneous moments. It draws French, German, American and British writers into discussion of stories by the canonical author Alas, and Ros de Olano, an author who is receiving increasing attention from scholars of nineteenth-century Spanish literature. Recent scholarship in the field of nineteenth-century Spanish literature and culture has challenged the thesis of 'retraso,' the thesis that Spain lagged far behind its European neighbors. Building on this scholarship, this monograph incorporates shorter works of experimental prose fiction into discussions of nineteenth-century literary modernity in Spain. It further expands the field by combining analysis of the writing of the canonical author, Leopoldo Alas with stories by Antonio Ros de Olano, whose work has been receiving increasing attention from scholars in the field. Rather than thinking of these works in terms of the ways they conform to established models provided by either contemporaneous French and British works, or by fin de siglo and early twentieth-century Spanish literature, Modernity's Metonyms works inductively. It builds outwards from the seven stories studies, identifying patterns of associations shared with writing by figures as diverse as Ludwig Feuerbach, Thomas Carlyle, Emilio Castelar, Briere de Boismont, P.J. Cabanis, or Jean-Anselme Brillat-Savarin. The seven stories discussed are Alas's 'Do-a Berta,' 'Zurita,' 'Cuervo' and 'Cuento futuro,' and Ros de Olano's 'Jornadas de retorno escritas por un aparecido,' 'Maese Cornelio TOcito,' and 'La noche de mOscaras.'