Bernan Press

Pages: 188
•
Trim: 7 x 10

978-1-59888-888-1 • Paperback • January 2017 • $95.00 • (£73.00)

978-1-59888-889-8 • eBook • January 2017 • $90.00 • (£69.00)

Christopher A. Janicak, Ph.D., CSP, ARM, is a Professor of Safety and Graduate Program Coordinator at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Department of Safety Sciences. Dr. Janicak has over 20 years of professional experience in safety as a loss control consultant, safety manager, and university professor. He has presented at many national and international conferences, and has published books, book chapters, and journal articles in the field of occupational safety.

Contents

List of Figures and Tables

Preface

About the Author

1

Fundamentals of Statistics

Statistics and Their Use in Safety

Statistics Defined

Common Terms and Notations

Quantitative and Qualitative Data

Statistical Notations

Research Questions and Hypotheses

Types of Studies

Retrospective Studies

Prospective Studies

Experiments

Statistical Samples versus Statistical Populations

Bias

Probability Sample Selection Procedures

Sampling Techniques

Random Samples

Simple Random Samples

Cluster Samples

Stratified Random Samples

Nonprobability Sample Selection Procedures

Chunk Sampling

Volunteer Samples

Variables

Dependent and Independent Variables

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Exercises

2

Probability and Chance

Probability

Marginal Probabilities

Joint Event Probabilities

Union Probabilities

Conditional Probabilities

Factorials, Permutations, Ordered Combinations, and Combinations

Factorials

Permutations

Combinations

Binomial Probabilities

Poisson Probability

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Exercises

3

Distributions

Statistical Distributions and Populations

Frequencies

Histograms

Frequency Polygons

Percentages, Cumulative Percentages, and Percentiles

Normal Distribution

Binomial Distribution

t Distribution

Chi-square Distribution

F Distribution

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Exercises

4

Descriptive Statistics

Data Formats

Categorical Data

Ordinal Data

Interval Data

Ratio Data

Strength of the Data Formats

Measures of Central Tendency

Mean

Median

Mode

Measures of Variability

Range

Variance

Standard Deviation

Interquartile Range

z Scores

z Scores and Percentages of the Population

Confidence Intervals for Means

95% Confidence Intervals

99% Confidence Intervals

Interpreting Confidence Intervals

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Exercises

5

Statistical Tests

Statistical Hypotheses

Inferential Statistical Testing

Type I and Type II Errors

Alpha Levels

Statistical Power of a Test

Inferential Statistics Test Procedure

Developing a Statistical Hypothesis

Choosing the Appropriate Statistical Test or Procedure

Determining the Statistical Distribution

Determining Significance Levels

Formulating a Decision Rule

Running the Test

Formulating a Conclusion and Making a Decision

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Exercises

6

Inferential Statistics for Means

## z-Test Comparing a Sample Mean to a Known Population Mean Test Assumptions

Hypothesis Construction

Determine Significance Levels

Using a z Table

Formulate a Decision Rule

z Test Formula

Conclusions

Example z Test Problem

## Independent Samples z-Test Test Assumptions

Independent Samples z-Test Formula

Example Independent Samples z-test Problem

### Hypothesis Construction Conclusions

Example z Test Problem

t –Test for a Single Mean

Test Assumptions

Hypothesis Construction

t Test Hypotheses

Determine Significance Levels

Formulate a Decision Rule

t-Test Formula for a Single Mean

Conclusions

Example t-Test Problem

t-Test for Independent Samples

Paired Samples t-Tests

Test Assumptions

Hypothesis Construction

Determine Significance Levels

Formulate a Decision Rule

Test Formula

Conclusions

Example Paired Samples t-Test Problem

One-way Analysis of Variance

Procedure Assumptions

Hypothesis Construction

Procedure Formulas

Hypothesis Construction

Formulate a Decision Rule

Calculate F Ratio

Conclusions

Post Hoc Procedures

Tukey’s HSD

Calculate Tukey’s HSD

Formulate a Decision Rule

Example ANOVA Problem

Formulate a Decision Rule

Calculate F ratio

Conclusions

Run Post Hoc Tests

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Exercises

7

Correlation and Regression

Correlation

Pearson Correlation Coefficient

Assumptions

Pearson Correlation Coefficient Formula

Sample Problem

Significance Testing for Correlation Coefficients

Test Hypotheses

Test Formula

### Sample Problem

Spearman Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient

Assumptions

### Spearman Rank–Order Correlation Coefficient Formula

### Sample Problem Phi Coefficient

Assumptions

Phi Coefficient Formula

### Sample Problem Point Biserial Correlation

Assumptions

## Point Biserial Correlation Formula Sample Problem

Significance Testing for Correlation Coefficients

Linear Regression

Procedure Assumptions

Linear Regression Formulas

Sample Problem

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Exercises

8

Nonparametric Statistics

Underlying Assumptions Concerning Nonparametric Statistics

Chi-square Test for Goodness of Fit

Degrees of Freedom

Test Assumptions

Hypothesis Construction

Test Formula

Determining the Critical Value

Sample Problem

## c^{2 }Test of Independence Degrees of Freedom

Expected Number of Cases

Test Assumptions

Hypothesis Construction

Test Formula

Sample Problem

## Cochran’s Q Test Test Assumptions

Hypothesis Construction

## Cochran’s Q Test Formula Sample Problem

Cochran's Q Test

Test Assumptions

Hypothesis Construction

Test Formula

Sample Problem

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Exercises

9

Survey Research

Types of Survey Studies

Collecting and Maintaining Survey Data

Outline for Planning a Survey

Constructing the Instrument

Types of Survey Items

Forms of Questions

Unstructured Questions

Structured Questions

Rating Scales

Likert Scales

Semantic Differential Scales

Formatting Questionnaires for the Mail

Sound Survey Research Procedures

Measurable Objective

Representative Population

Match the Hypothesis to the Statistical Tests

Conduct Background Research

Instrument Validity and Reliability

Cover Letters and Instructions

Sampling for Surveys

Calculating Sample Sizes

Survey Research Limitations

Pilot Testing

Permission to Use Human Subjects

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Exercises

10

Experimental Design

Experimental Design Uses

Research Hypotheses and Experimental Design

Dependent and Independent Variables

Types of Experimental Designs

One-way ANOVA

Completely Randomized Design

Randomized Block Design

Latin Square Design

Completely Randomized Factorial Design

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Exercises

11

Presenting Research

Data Presentation for Safety Professionals

Displaying Descriptive Statistics

Displaying Tables

Column Charts

Pie Charts

Presenting Inferential Statistics

z-Tests and t-Tests

Example Results from a Paired t-Test Procedure

One-way Analysis of Variance

Correlation Procedures

Regression Procedures

Nonparametric Procedures

Using Computer Software to Develop Presentations

Sample Data Analysis Using Microsoft Excel

Developing Presentations Using Microsoft Office

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Exercises

Appendix

Statistical Tables

Cumulative Distribution Function for the Standard Normal Random Variable

Critical Values for the t Distribution

Critical Values for the Chi-square Distribution

Critical Values for the F Distribution

Table of Random Units

Critical Values of the Studentized Range

Glossary

References

Solutions to Selected Problems

Index