The Handbook of Latin American and Caribbean Intelligence Cultures explores the contemporary efforts of Latin American and Caribbean nations to develop an intelligence culture. Specifically, it analyzes these countries’ efforts to democratize their intelligence agencies (i.e. to develop intelligence services that are both transparent and effective) to convert the former military regimes’ repressive security apparatuses into democratic intelligence communities—a rather paradoxical task, considering that democracy calls for political neutrality, transparency, and accountability, while effective intelligence services must operate in secrecy. Indeed, even the most successful democracies face this conundrum of democracy and intelligence; Latin America and the Caribbean region is not alone in facing this challenge. The legacy of the repressive military regimes or brutal civil wars—which have inspired in the public a general disdain toward intelligence services due to the grave human rights abuses—coupled with politicians’ persistent lack of interest or expertise in intelligence matters complicate the region’s quest for a proper balance between the competing demands of democracy and intelligence. This volume details the attempts of the region’s countries to overcome these obstacles and pursue democratic intelligence institution building—transforming the legal basis for intelligence; establishing democratic control and oversight mechanisms; and fostering intelligence openness, transparency, and outreach.
Florina Cristiana Matei is a lecturer at the Center for Homeland Defense and Security at the United States Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), Monterey, California. She also lectures for NPS’s National Security Affairs Department and conducts Security Assistance programs for military officers and civilian counterparts around the world. She currently serves as Vice Chair of the Intelligence Studies Section of the International Studies Association, and Associate Editor of the International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence.
Eduardo E. Estévez is an independent consultant/researcher specialized in intelligence and security, police reforms and citizen security. He is Adjunct Professor at the Instituto Universitario de la Policía Federal Argentina (IUPFA), Buenos Aires, Argentina. He served as Secretary of Analysis and Articulation of Processes, Ministry of Security of the Province of Santa Fe (2015- 2019); held key positions in Argentina’s Ministry of Interior, and the Ministry of Security of the Province of Buenos Aires (2000-2015); and served as Parliamentary Advisor to the National Congress (1990s).
Carolyn Halladay is senior lecturer in the National Security Affairs Department at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). She also lectures at the NPS Center for Homeland Defense and Security. An historian and a lawyer, Dr. Halladay’s academic focus is in contemporary Central Europe, but she has participated in Security Assistance programs for military officers and civilian counterparts around the world.
Preface - Peter Gill
Introduction - Florina Cristiana Matei, Eduardo Estévez, Carolyn Halladay, with Richard Elmore
Part I: Established democracies
Chapter 1: Colombia - Jason Blazakis
Chapter 2: Mexico - Marcos Pablo Moloeznik
Part II: New democracies
Chapter 3: Argentina - Alejandra Otamendi, Germán Gallino & Eduardo Estévez
Chapter 4: Bolivia - Eduardo Estévez
Chapter 5: Brazil - Marco Cepik
Chapter 6: Chile - Clay Oeffinger, Shane Moran & Florina Cristiana Matei
Chapter 7: Ecuador - Fredy Rivera Vélez & Renato Rivera Rhon
Chapter 8: Peru - Victor Ray
Chapter 9: Uruguay - Nicolás Alvarez
Chapter 10: Costa Rica - Gerardo Hernández Naranjo, Marco Vinicio Méndez Coto & Carlos Humberto Cascante-Segura
Chapter 11: Guatemala - Eduardo Estévez
Chapter 12: Bahamas-Trinidad Tobago-Jamaica - Kevin Peters
Chapter 13: Paraguay - Eduardo Estévez &Florina Cristiana Matei
Chapter 14: El Salvador - Eduardo Estévez
Part III: Non-Democratic Regimes
Chapter 15: Venezuela - Jacques (Jake) Suyderhoud & Florina Cristiana Matei
Chapter 16: Cuba - Brendan de Brun
Conclusion - Thomas C. Bruneau
About the Authors