Intelligence cultures are influenced by past and present governments, society and foreign relations. This book provides the first review of every African intelligence culture. It examines the role of the state, civil society and international relations in shaping African countries’ intelligence norms, activities and oversight. Bringing together a group of international scholars, the book explores how intelligence culture is shaped and the role it has in government and civil society. This comprehensive book argues that African agency in government and society is the key to understanding Africa’s intelligence services.
Ryan Shaffer is a historian with expertise on political violence and security. He has written for international magazines, including Reader’s Digest and Homeland Security Today, and his academic research has appeared in journals, such as Intelligence and National Security and the Journal of Intelligence History. Shaffer's books include African Intelligence Services: Early Postcolonial and Contemporary Challenges.
Introduction, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of the, Congo- Republic of the Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Eswatini (formerly Swaziland), Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe