As the world experiences heightened levels of violent conflict and polarization, understanding what peacebuilding efforts are “effective” becomes all the more pressing. This groundbreaking edited volume brings together a diverse, global group of practitioners, researchers, and peacebuilders to grapple with urgent questions and challenges related to defining and assessing peacebuilding effectiveness. Sections of the book engage in critical reflection on what peacebuilding effectiveness is and who gets to decide, provide practical examples and case studies of the successes and failures of assessing peacebuilding work, and support innovative strategies and tools to move the field forward. Chapters reflect a variety of perspectives on peacebuilding effectiveness and methods—quantitative, qualitative, and participatory—to evaluate peacebuilding efforts, with particular attention to approaches that center those local to the peacebuilding process. Practitioners and policymakers alike will find useful arguments and approaches for evaluating peacebuilding activities and making the case for funding such efforts. This book aims to catalyze conversation and action among peacebuilding practitioners, academics, donors, and those directly affected by peacebuilding efforts about how we define and measure effectiveness.
About the Editors
Stacey L. Connaughton is professor in the Brian Lamb School of Communication and the director of the Purdue Policy Research Institute at Purdue University.
Jasmine R. Linabary is assistant professor in the Department of Public and Applied Humanities at the University of Arizona and an evaluation consultant.
Tiwalade Adekunle, Isabel Aguilar Umaña, Susan H. Allen, Tanya Ansahta Garnett, Marcel Arsenault, Yara M. Asi, Allyson Bachta, Nell Bolton, Caroline Brooks, Stacey L. Connaughton, Alice Coulibaly, Alexa Courtney, Bijaya Dahal, Soledad Granada, Melanie Greenberg, Bob Groelsema, Fadi Hallisso, Thomas Hill, Kristina Hook, Rick Jones, Scarlett Kassimatis, Michael L. Kent, Ilam Khan, Dimitri Kotsiras, Elizabeth Laruni, Adrienne Lemon, Jasmine R. Linabary, Jenna J. Lindeke, Camila Linneman, Stuart Moir, Michael Papa, Jeffrey Pugh, Jason Quinn, Meghana Rawat, Megan Renoir, Karen Ross, Conor Seyle, Zahid Shahab Ahmed, Steve Sheamer, Katerina Siira, Ruth Simpson, Nicole Stoumen, Michael Sweigart, Margarita Tadevosyan, Maureen Taylor, Zach Tilton, Khan Zeb
Preface - Melanie Greenberg
How Do We Measure Peace?
Whose Peace Are We Measuring?
Introduction - Stacey L. Connaughton and Jasmine R. Linabary
Interrogating “Peacebuilding Effectiveness”
Understanding Peacebuilding “Effectiveness”
What is Effectiveness? Effectiveness for Whom?
Arguments and Innovations
Section I: What is Effectiveness? Effectiveness for Whom?
Chapter 1: The Greatest Myth of Peacebuilding Ineffectiveness - Jason Quinn
Tracing the Origins of the Myth
Measuring the Effectiveness of Final Peace Agreements
Full Agreements (Uppsala Conflict Data Program)
Comprehensive Peace Agreements (Peace Accord Matrix Project)
Kreutz’s Conflict Termination Dataset
What Lessons Can We Learn from the Myth of Peace Agreement Ineffectiveness?
Chapter 2: An Ecofeminist Approach to Peacebuilding Effectiveness: An Example from Colombia's Peace Process - Soledad Granada
Effectiveness of Peacebuilding from an Ecofeminist Perspective: Tools and Concepts
Peacebuilding Effectiveness in Colombia from an Ecofeminist Perspective
Social Organization: Intersection of the Social Movement around Peace
Dealing with the Past and Working for the Future: Historical Memory and Legal Activism
Improving Human-Nature Relationships: The Development and Security Nexus
Chapter 3: A Socio-Economic Approach to Reducing Violence Against Women and Girls in Rural Tajikistan - Stuart Moir and Elizabeth Laruni
Peacebuilding and SGBV
Living In Dignity: An Effective Approach to Reducing SGBV Committed Within the Family the Project
The Importance of Evidence in Designing an Effective Intervention
The ZS Methodology
Chapter 4: Whose Peace? Prioritizing Local Perspectives to Inform our Understanding of Peacebuilding Effectiveness - Megan Renoir, Scarlett Kassimatis, Alice Coulibaly, and Dimitri Kotsiras
Best Practice in Defining Peacebuilding Effectiveness
Reimagining Peacebuilding Effectiveness
From Peace Writ Little to Peace Writ Large: Foundation Chirezi
Chapter 5: Locally Useful Evidence: Re-Centering Knowledge Creation for Local Peace Work - Michael Sweigart, Kristina Hook, Margarita Tadevosyan, and Susan H. Allen
Making Sense of Existing Literature
Power Imbalance in Shaping the Peacebuilding Evidence Base
Disconnect Between Donors’ Requirements and Local Priorities on Evaluation
Emphasis on the Value of Qualitative Data
Contextual Knowledge and Sensitivity
Promotion of Local Thematic Expertise
Applied Implications for Convening Organizations
Future Research Directions
Chapter 6: Are Peacebuilding Evaluators Making a Difference? Towards a Meta-Evaluative Agenda for Research on Peacebuilding Evaluation - Zach Tilton
Key Concepts Defined
Why Meta-Evaluative Research on Peacebuilding Evaluation?
Research on Evaluation Conceptual Frameworks
Toward an Agenda for Research on Peacebuilding Evaluation
Peacebuilding Evaluation Theory
Peacebuilding Evaluation Practice
Peacebuilding Evaluation Consequences
Section II: Lessons Learned
Chapter 7: Illustrating Intended and Unintended Consequences of Peacebuilding in Locally Led Peacebuilding: The Role of Focus Group Methods in Participatory Evaluation - Meghana Rawat and Tiwalade Adekunle
Participatory Approaches to Evaluation in Peacebuilding
The Case of the Purdue Peace Project
2016: Pre-Election Focus Groups
2017: Post-Election Focus Groups
Chapter 8: Assessing Peacebuilding Effectiveness: The Carter Center in Sudan and Uganda - Michael Papa
Objectives of the Principals: TCC, Uganda, and Sudan
Successes of TCC’s Peacebuilding Activities
Restoration of Diplomatic Relations
Repatriating Abducted Children, Prisoners of War, IDPs, and Refugees
Guinea Worm Disease Eradication
Ending Civil War in Sudan
Failures of TCC’s Peacebuilding Activities
Violent Sudanese-Ugandan Offensive Operations against the LRA
Emergence of Civil War in Darfur
Evaluation of Peacebuilding Effectiveness
Expectations of Conflicting Parties
Involving All Key Players in Negotiations
International Mediators Teaming up with Locals
Chapter 9: Post-Conflict Rehabilitation of Ex-Combatants: Assessing Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Programs in Nepal and District Swat, Pakistan, and Nepal - Ilam Khan and Bijaya Dahal
Rehabilitation Program in Swat, Pakistan
Sketching Out the Rehabilitation Centers in Swat
Understanding the Process of Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation and Reintegration Program in Nepal
Challenges of Social Integration
Chapter 10: Is Peacebuilding Education Making a Difference? Peace Education Interventions and their Impact in Lebanon - Caroline Brooks, Fadi Hallisso, and Ruth Simpson
What Is Peace Education?
Basmeh and Zeitooneh’s Approach to Peace Education
Critical Reflections on Peace Education Programming
Chapter 11: Woman, You Are Not Alone! An Effective Approach to Address Violence Against Women - Isabel Aguilar Umaña and Rick Jones
The Social Dimensions of VAW
Woman, You Are Not Alone! Women’s Self Help Groups Methodology-Evidence
Reduced Physical, Emotional, and Sexual Violence
Chapter 12: The Challenges of Assessing Peacebuilding in Pakistan - Zahid Shahab Ahmed and Khan Zeb
Theorizing Peacebuilding and Effectiveness
The Need for Peacebuilding in Pakistan
Results and Discussion
The Access Issue
Theory of Change
Chapter 13: Coordination for Effective Peacebuilding: One NGO's Approach - Marcel Arsenault and Conor Seyle
What Do We Know about Peacebuilding?
Recognized But Not Materialized
What Can NGO Do about This?
What Lessons Might There Be for the Larger System?
Chapter 14: Are We Making a Difference or Doing Harm? Practical Strategies for Assessing Peacebuilding Effectiveness to Drive Adaptation and Improvement - Tanya Ansahta Garnett and Camila Linneman
What Is the CLA Framework?
How Is the CLA Framework Useful for Evaluating Peacebuilding?
CLA in Action: Case Study Examples
Investing in National Discourse on Post-Conflict Development Priorities in Liberia
Re-Envisioning Who Sets the Development Agenda in Uganda
Rapid, Cost-Friendly, and Collaborative Evaluation Strategies in Liberia
Learning and Adapting to Build Resilience in South Sudan
Infusing “Do No Harm” Principles in Interventions in Liberia
Section III: Arguments and Innovations
Chapter 15: Using Event Data to Address Positive Bias in Evaluations - Steve Sheamer, Alexa Courtney, and Jenna J. Lindeke
Perceptions of Peace Versus Levels of Violence
Political Event Data
1. Program Suitability
2. Geographic Specificity
3. Key Metrics
5. Building Evidence
Chapter 16: The Most Significant Change Approach for Evaluating Peace Impacts - Maureen Taylor
Background on the Most Significant Change (MSC) Approach
How to Implement MSC
Step 1: Raising Interest and Gaining Buy-in
Step 2: Defining Domains of Change
Step 3: Defining the Reporting Period
Step 4: Collecting MSC Stories
Step 5: Selecting the Most Significant of the Stories
Step 6: Feeding Back the Results of the Selection Process
Step 7: Verification of Stories
Step 8: Quantification
Step 9: Secondary Analysis and Meta-Monitoring
Step 10: Revising the System
Application of MSC to Peacebuilding in Liberia
Lessons Learned and Best Practices
Chapter 17: The Delphi Method as a Tool in Peacebuilding Assessment - Michael L. Kent
History and Background of the Delphi Method
The Delphi Method as a Peacebuilding Tool
Overview of the Delphi Methodology
Critical Points and Potential Pitfalls
Step-by-Step Instructions for Conducting a Delphi Study
Chapter 18: Participatory Action Research: Mutual Inquiry for Effective Local Peacebuilding - Thomas Hill, Katerina Siira, and Nicole Stoumen
The Importance of Participatory Action Research
Locally Led Peacebuilding: Participatory Action Research Case Studies in Libya and Colombia
Chapter 19: Gauging Harmony: Applying the Social Cohesion Barometer to Assess and Advance Peacebuilding - Bob Groelsema and Nell Bolton
Social Cohesion as Construct, Aspiration and Lived Reality
Origins and Composition of the Mini-Social Cohesion Barometer
Applications of the Barometer
The Barometer as a Baseline and Endline Indicator in CAR
The Barometer as a Tool for Context Analysis in the Lake Chad Basin
Discussion and Lessons
Chapter 20: From Education to Peacebuilding: Exploring the Role of Networks in Peacebuilding Work - Allyson Bachta, Karen Ross, and Jeffrey Pugh
What We Know
The Potential of Social Networks
Case 1: Regional Institute on Nonviolent Action in the Americas, Ecuador
Case 2: Jewish-Palestinian Encounter Participation, Israel
Chapter 21: To Help Measure Peace, Measure Health - Yara M. Asi
Health and Peace
When Health Becomes a Target: The Case of Syria
Watching a Society Recover: Health in Rwanda
The Benefits of Measuring Peace with Health
Which Health Measures Best Reflect Peace?
Chapter 22: A Global Framework to Measure Peace - Adrienne Lemon
Creating Better Evidence on Peace
An Inclusive Way to Understand Impact
A Global Framework for Understanding Peace and Conflict: Three Pillars
Aligned Measures for Peace
Shared Reflection and Adaptation
The Cases: Piloting the Framework
Practitioner Teams: Lessons from Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia
Setting up Systems: Resources to Make Measuring Peace Accessible
A Vision for Better Evidence
Aligning our Field without Constraining It
Shifting the Paradox of Power and Authority in Peace Measurement
Putting the Global Impact Framework to Use
Conclusion: Peacebuilding Effectiveness: The What, Who, How, and Why It All Matters - Stacey L. Connaughton and Jasmine R. Linabary
Key Reflections: Questions on Peacebuilding Effectiveness
What is “Effectiveness” in Peacebuilding?
Is Effectiveness the Absence of Violence or the Presence of Positive Relations? Both?
Is it about Effectiveness in the Short Term or the Longer Term?
Are We Seeking Program-Level Change or Contributing to Peace Writ Large?
Who Gets to Decide What Effectiveness Means? Who Is It For?
Who Gets to Decide What Effectiveness Means?
Who Is It For?
How Do We Know We Have Achieved Peacebuilding Effectiveness?
What Evidence Has Value?
What is Practical and Ethical to Collect?
Embrace a Both/And Mentality on Peacebuilding Effectiveness
Adopt Both Structure and Flexibility When Assessing Peacebuilding Effectiveness
Ask the “Who” Questions and Interrogate Power Dynamics
Limitations and Future Directions
Appendix B: Materials shared with IREX Partners at the MSC Workshop
Step 1: Generating the Most Significant Change Stories
Step 2: Selecting and Documenting the Best Stories to Represent Your Organization’s Impact
Step 3: Submit the Stories to IREX
Appendix C: Template for Story Submission
Appendix D: Global Impact Framework Diagram
Step 1: Design for Impact
Step 2: Create a Learning Loop
Step 3: Adapt Strategies to Transform Conflict
Step 4: Share and Repeat
About the Contributors
Are We Making a Difference is a remarkable undertaking in aim, scope, and possibilities for the future. Are We Making a Difference takes on the responsibility of interrogating the myriad tensions involved in ascertaining effectiveness in peacekeeping to record initiatives and provide a foundation for further (re)considerations of what effectiveness means and how it can be measured and activated for the good of the communities it serves. This collection offers a stunning and provocative array of chapters representing local and globe efforts from experts who are scholars, donors, policy-makers, and/or practitioners. By dismantling peacebuilding myths and grappling with seemingly unsurmountable challenges, Are We Making a Difference inspires readers to hope for peace.
Are We Making a Difference? is a book that the peacebuilding field has been waiting for a long time. It not only provides an important review of the progress made in monitoring and evaluation in the field over the last 20 years, it also asks the critical, difficult questions that must be confronted if we are to continue to make progress in the next 20 years.