In this book, Ioanid explores in great detail the physical destruction of Romania’s Jewish and Roma communities, including the pogroms of Bucharest and Iaşi as well as the deportations and the massacres from Bessarabia, Bukovina, and Transnistria. Based on thousands of archival documents and testimonies of survivors, The Holocaust in Romania sheds new light on Romania’s prefascist and fascist antisemitic legislation and its implementation. New chapters consider the forced labor of the Jews, persecution by the Protestant churches, and the decision-making process of the Antonescu government in its treatment of Jews and Roma. With this book, the Romanian Holocaust will no longer be forgotten.
Radu Ioanid was born and grew up in Bucharest, Romania. He was director of the Benjamin and Vladka Meed Registry of Jewish Holocaust Survivors and then director of the International Archival Programs Division at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. He is presently the ambassador of Romania to Israel. Mr. Ioanid’s other books include The Sword of the Archangel: Fascist Ideology in Romania, The Iaşi Pogrom, June–July 1941: A Photo Documentary from the Holocaust in Romania, and The Ransom of the Jews: The Story of the Extraordinary Secret Bargain between Romania and Israel.
Foreword by Dennis Deletant
1 The Legal Status of Jews in Romania
2 The Massacres before the War
3 The Massacres at the Beginning of the War
4 Transit Camps and Ghettos, Deportations, and Other Mass Murders
5 The Massacres in Transnistria
6 Life in Transnistria
7 The Deportation, Persecution, and Extermination of Roma
8 The Survival of the Romanian Jews
9 The Fate of Romanian Jews Living Abroad
10 The Antonescu Government through Its Own Statements
11 Summing Up
About the Author
Radu Ioanid has capitalized on his unique, decades-long experience collecting archives worldwide on behalf of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and building the museum’s collections of survivor testimony to produce the most authoritative study of the Holocaust in Romania available today. The responsibility of Romania’s violently antisemitic Antonescu regime and the complicity or indifference of most Romanian elites and the broader public emerge with a clarity that is often absent in studies of the Holocaust elsewhere. The agony of the victims is powerfully presented, in their own words as well as in reports generated by military and civilian authorities seeking to document their contributions to a national priority. Ioanid’s attention to the victimization of Roma, minority religious sects, and other groups completes the frightful picture of Romania’s Holocaust-era crimes and serves as a warning that if we fail to learn from history, what happened to Jews during the Holocaust can happen to anyone.
Comprehensive, terrifying, magnificent, Radu Ioanid’s book is the most complete history of the Holocaust in Romania ever published. This work truly reveals the extent of the Holocaust in Romania—the methods of persecution and murder, the decision-making processes of the Antonescu regime, the categories of victims—and completely identifies the perpetrators. It is also a mirror of the Romanian present and past from the perspective of responsibilities.
Radu Ioanid tells in detail the full story of the Holocaust in Romania, inspired by Nazi Germany but largely carried out by willing Romanian executioners. Antisemitism was not new to Romania; it had existed for centuries with violent outbreaks, the most horrendous carried out by the fascist Iron Guard in January 1941. To this day, the horror remains a stain on Romania. No one is better able to tell the story of the slaughter of Romania’s Jews than the distinguished Holocaust historian Radu Ioanid, Romania’s ambassador to Israel.
There is no one more qualified to tell the history of the Holocaust in Romania than Radu Ioanid. He brings to this difficult story the professional perspective of a stellar historian and the personal perspective of a Romanian whose life was impacted by these events and their aftermath. Teachers and students will be relying on this work for a very long time to come.