Preface

Acknowledgments

Section I

*Essentials for Statistics*1 Effective Strategies for Studying Statistics

Self-assessment

Assumptions about the Reader

Effective Strategies for Studying Statistics

2 Overcoming Math Anxiety

What Causes Math Anxiety?

Overview of Rational Emotive Therapy

Irrational Beliefs

How to Deal with Math Anxiety

3 How to Use SPSS

What is SPSS?

Starting SPSS

Basic Steps in SPSS Data Analysis

Entering Data

Selecting an Analysis

Running an Analysis and Examining Results

Finding Help in SPSS

Section II

*Describing Univariate Data*

4 Frequency Distributions

What are statistics?

Variables

Levels of Measurement

Frequency Distributions

Grouped Frequency Distributions

Graphing Data

Frequency Polygon

Histogram

Cumulative Frequency Polygon

Normal Curve

Skewed and Multimodal Distributions

Problems

Answers to Problems

5 Descriptive Statistics

What are statistics?

Measures of Central Tendency

Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency

Measures of variability

Problems

Answers to Problems

6 The Normal Curve

What is the Normal Curve?

The Normal Curve as a Model

Proportions of Scores Under the Normal Curve

Problems

Answers to Problems

7 Percentiles and Standard Scores

Percentiles

Standard Scores (Z score)

Other Standard Scores

T Scores

Converting Standard Scores to Percentiles

A Word of Warning

Problems

Answers to Problems

Section III

*Inferential Statistics*

8 Introduction to Inferential Statistics

Probability

The Sampling Experiment

Sample Values (Statistics) and Population Values (Parameters)

The Null Hypothesis

Type I and Type II Errors

Statistical Significance and Type I Error

Effect Size and Power

Problems

Answers to Problems

9 The t Test

The t Test for Independent Samples

Assumptions for Using the t Test for Independent Samples

Formula for the t Test for Independent Samples

The Critical Value of t: t_{crit}_{}Effect Size for the t Test for Independent Samples

The t Test for Dependent (Matched/Paired) Samples

Directional Versus Nondirectional Tests

Problems

Answers to Problems

10 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Analysis of Variance

Assumptions for using ANOVA

Conducting an ANOVA in SPSS

Strength of Association

Post hoc Analysis

The Scheffé Method of Post-Hoc Analysis

Problems

Answers to Problems

11 Nonparametric Statistics: Chi-square

Nonparametric Statistical Tests

The One-way Test of Chi-square (*)*

The Two-way Test of Chi-square (*)*

Effect Size for Chi-Square Tests of Independence

A Bit More

Problems

Answers to Problems

Section IV

*Correlation Coefficients and Linear Regression*

12 Correlation Coefficients

Correlation Coefficients

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient

Interpreting Correlation Coefficients

Sources of Misleading Correlation Coefficients

Creating a Scatterplot

Other Methods of Correlation

Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient

Problems

Answers to Problems

13 Linear Regression

Regression Equations

Standard Error of the Estimate

Problems

Answers to Problems

14 Postscript

Congratulations!

Review of Book

Appendices

A Basic Math Review

B Proportions of Area Under the Standard Normal Curve

C Critical Values of t

D Glossary of Formulas

Index