Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Trim: 6¼ x 9⅜
978-1-5381-0203-9 • Hardback • April 2018 • $45.00 • (£35.00)
978-1-5381-0204-6 • eBook • April 2018 • $39.50 • (£30.00)
Laurence Armand French, Phd, is professor emeritus of psychology at Western New Mexico University and senior research associate at the JusticeWorks Institute at the University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH. He has taught criminology, criminal justice, sociology, and psychology at various universities, including minority-serving universities and has won awards for this minority-based research. He is Senior Fulbright Scholar assigned to the University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina for the 2009/2010 academic year. He has written many articles and books, including Frog Town: Portrait of a French Canadian Parish in New England (R&L, 2014), Running the Border Gauntlet (2010) and Native American Justice (R&L, 2003). He received the 1999 National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) research award for his work in assessing substance abuse among minorities in the U.S. southwest.
Part I: Origins of U.S. Law Enforcement: Militias, Military, Marshals, and Sheriffs
Chapter 1: Introduction: Colonial Roots in Policing America
Chapter 2: Introduction to the Origins of American Jurisprudence
Chapter 3: Growing Pains—1783–1865: Insurrections, Rebellions, and Indian Removal
Chapter 4: Post–Civil War Unrest and Social Control during the Nineteenth Century
Part II: Law and Order in the Americas and Beyond, 1898–1946
Chapter 5: U.S. Colonial Expansionism in the Caribbean and Pacific
Chapter 6: Reinforcing WASP White Supremacy: Eugenics and Prohibition
Chapter 7: Post–World War II Challenges to Law Enforcement
Part III: Civil Rights Aftermath: Increased Militarization and Racial Myths Enhancement
Chapter 8: The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act
Chapter 9: Role of Academia in Validating “Institutional Racism”
Chapter 10: The War on Drugs and Its Escalation
Chapter 11: Factors Contributing to the Militarization of the Police
Part IV: Twenty-First-Century Concerns
Chapter 12: Understanding Group Dynamics, Biases, Prejudices, and Discrimination
Chapter 13: Assessing Law Enforcement Personnel
Chapter 14: Politics and Policing
Chapter 15: Recommendations for American Law Enforcement
Postscript: An Ethno-Methodological Note
French (emer., psychology, Western New Mexico Univ.) does not offer just another historical survey of policing. He has written a loosely chronological account of the injustices perpetrated by the justice system against Native Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans (among others) from the Colonial period to the present. He traces the roots of this discriminatory enforcement of the law to early colonists’ Puritan culture, which fostered the embrace of Manifest Destiny and white (Anglo-Saxon Protestant) supremacy. Under the direction of these WASP elites, the police, courts, armed forces, and other legal (and extralegal) entities have regularly used violence to control other classes and races. . . French’s catalog of abuses serves to remind readers of the social and political context in which policing must be studied. . . his recommendations that reforms be based on a more sophisticated understanding of bias, and that psychological assessments of personnel be used to identify prejudice, appear sound.
Summing Up: Recommended. . . Undergraduates and general readers.
— Choice Reviews
Policing America: From Militias to Law Enforcement Today by Laurence French. French provides an excellent insight into the development of policing in America. Policing America is well thought-out, well written and organized This book should be read by all those interested in policing.
— Michael J. Palmiotto, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Wichita State University
This book is a comprehensive review of the history on how both informal and formally sanctioned organizations in the United States morphed into the law enforcement organizations that exist today. It is well written, easy to understand, and will be of great interest to all readers alike.
— Jeffrey Ian Ross, University of Baltimore
French’s career long investigation of policing practices and policies provides the basis for his insightful analysis of the historical roots of the paradoxes of policing in the 21st century. This book makes an important contribution to our understanding of the social forces that shape police-citizen encounters.
— John Humphrey, PhD, professor, Saint Anselm College