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Cross-Cultural Competence for a Twenty-First-Century Military

Culture, the Flipside of COIN

Edited by Robert Greene Sands and Allison Greene-Sands

Warfare in the 21st century is far different than warfare throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Conventional warfare was about kinetic force and bending an adversary by might and strength. Skills valued were those related to mastery of weapons and placing ordnance on target. Courage and valor were defined by conflict, militaries were distinct from the population, and occupation was an enduring stage of war. Contemporary warfare, besides continuing to be an exercise in military strength, is composed of missions that depend on skills to forge interpersonal relationships and build sustainable partnerships with a host of actors that once had no voice or role in conflict’s duration or conclusion. Today, final victory does not conclude directly from conflict, in fact victory may be subsumed into the larger and more consuming equation of international stability. Twenty-first century warfare is about counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism through an array of strategies that foster collusion and collaboration not acquiescence.Cross-cultural competence (3C) is a suite of competencies and enablers that have been identified as critical to instill in expeditionary military and civilian personnel in the Department of Defense (DoD). Defined as a set of knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes (KSAAs), 3C promotes effective interaction across cultural divides through exchanging ideas and meaning across cultures, facilitating effective cross-cultural interactions to develop and sustain relationships and providing a means to discern meaning from foreign and culturally different behavior. 3C permeates DoD policy, doctrine, strategy and operations and is now being institutionalized in DoD military and civilian education and training.
Cross-Cultural Competence for a Twenty-First-Century Military: Culture, the Flipside of COIN is a volume edited by two acknowledged experts on 3C in military learning, policy and research and explores the value and necessity of 3C to developing 21st Century warfighters. This volume features chapters by the editors and a host of multidisciplinary experts that probes all aspects of 3C, from concept to application. The message carried throughout Cross-Cultural Competence for a 21st Century Military is that contemporary and future security endeavors will be successful because winning wars ultimately rest on developing and sustaining cross-cultural relationships as much as it does on weapons and force.
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Lexington Books
Pages: 414Size: 6 x 9
978-0-7391-7959-8 • Hardback • December 2013 • $105.00 • (£70.00)
978-1-4985-5629-3 • Paperback • March 2017 • $54.99 • (£37.95)
978-0-7391-7960-4 • eBook • December 2013 • $51.99 • (£34.95)
Robert R. Greene Sands, PhD, is the director/senior research fellow at the Institute for the Study of Culture and Language at Norwich University and adjunct professor in Norwich University’s Continuing and Graduate Studies program. Sands has extensive experience in the development of culture and regional expertise education and training programs for military and other organizations involved in stability operations.

Allison Greene-Sands, PhD, is the associate director for culture for the Defense Language and National Security Office, within the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness. She is currently leading the implementation of a new policy that will institutionalize “Cross-Cultural Competence (3C)” as a core component in training and education for all military and select Department of Defense civilian personnel.

Kerry Fosher


Section Introduction
Robert R. Greene Sands
Allison Greene-Sands

1: Why Cross-cultural Competence?
Robert R. Greene Sands

2: The Historical Development of Cross-cultural Competence
Allison Abbe

3: A Developmental Model for Cross-cultural Competence
Patrice Reid
Felicia Kaloydis
Mary Margaret Suddith
Allison Greene-Sands

4: Institutionalizing Cross-cultural Competence in
Department of Defense Policy
Allison Greene-Sands


Section Introduction
Robert R. Greene Sands
Allison Greene-Sands

5: COIN and Beyond81
Robert R. Greene Sands

6: Cross-cultural Competence is Not Always Intuitive
Lieutenant Colonel Donald Snedeker (US Army, Retired)

7: Why Cross-cultural Competence is in the Tool Kit for
Foreign Area Officers
Colonel Humberto Rodriguez (US Army, Retired)

8: Cross-cultural Competence and Civil-Military Operations
Lieutenant Colonel Anthony Terlizzi (USMC, Retired)


Section Introduction
Allison Greene-Sands
Robert R. Greene Sands

9: Instrumentation Challenges in Developing Cross-cultural
Competence Models
Marinus van Driel
William K. Gabrenya

10: Developing Cross-cultural Competence Following Negative
Cross-Cultural Experiences
Jessica Gallus
Jennifer Klafehn

11: Complications in Cross-cultural Communications:
Using Interpreters
Aimee Vieira

12: Cross-cultural Influence and the Advising Mission:
Empirical Findings and the Way Ahead
Michelle Ramsden Zbylut


Section Introduction
Robert R. Greene Sands
Allison Greene-Sands

13: Cross-cultural Communication Contributions
to Professional Military Education:
A Distance Learning Case Study
Lauren Mackenzie
Megan Wallace

14: Cross-cultural Competence in the Classroom:
Measuring Instructional Effectiveness
Katie Gunther

15: Where’s the “So What?”:
Educating and training culture in the Marine Corps
Paula Holmes-Eber

16: Cross-cultural Competence plus Language:
Capturing the Essence of Intercultural Communication
Catherine Ingold


Section Introduction
Allison Greene-Sands
Robert R. Greene Sands

17: Cross-Cultural Competence as a Critical Enabler for
Security Force Assistance Missions
Amy Alrich

18: Raumschach Negotiations
Colonel Stefan Eisen (USAF, Retired)

19: Diversity and Cross-cultural Competence
Kizzy Parks
Christoper Butts
Bianca Trejo
Daniel P. McDonald

Cross-Cultural Competence for a Twenty-First-Century Military: Culture, the Flipside of COIN is a must-read for anyone engaged in national security efforts, especially for those in the military. This book provides readers with a comprehensive understanding of how and why cross-cultural competence has become critical for both national security and international stability—and what can be done to build this capability in the Force. As thought-leaders in the cross-cultural challenges affecting today’s military, Drs. Robert Greene Sands and Allison Greene-Sands have compiled the most cutting-edge work from operators, researchers, and educators that advance our collective understanding of the human capabilities necessary for success in contemporary warfare, international stability, and sustainable peace.
Paula Caligiuri, Northeastern University

In bringing together scholars and specialists from a wide range of organizational settings—from academia to the armed forces, in both governmental and non-governmental settings—Allison and Robert Greene Sands have captured the rich diversity of both knowledge bases and practical applications that are essential for successful cross-cultural competence in a twenty-first -century military.
Scott McGinnis, Defense Language Institute

These writings on cross-cultural competence are prescient, timely, and absolutely a necessary read. They bring what we know and need to know about ourselves and others into context and clarity.
Tom Haines, Defense Intelligence Agency