Over the last few years, Orthodox Jewish private schools, also known as yeshivas, have been under fire by a group of activists known as Young Advocates for Fair Education, run by several yeshiva graduates, who have criticized them for providing an inadequate secular education. At the heart of the yeshiva controversy lies two important interests in education: the right of the parent to choose an appropriate education, which may include values-laden religious education, and the right of each child to receive an appropriate education, as guaranteed by the state. These interests raise further questions. If preference is given to the former, how much freedom should be given to a parent in choosing an appropriate education? If the latter, how does the state define what constitutes an appropriate education or measure the extent to which an appropriate education has been achieved? And when can—or must—the state override the wishes of parents? The purpose of this book is to explore these difficult questions.