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Twentieth-Century Latin American Revolutions

Marc Becker

Revolutions are a commonly studied but only vaguely understood historical phenomenon. This clear and concise text extends our understanding with a critical narrative analysis of key case studies: the 1910–1920 Mexican Revolution; the 1944–1954 Guatemalan Spring; the 1952–1964 MNR-led revolution in Bolivia; the Cuban Revolution that triumphed in 1959; the 1970–1973 Chilean path to socialism; the leftist Sandinistas in Nicaragua in power from 1979–1990; failed guerrilla movements in Colombia, El Salvador, and Peru; and the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela after Hugo Chávez’s election in 1998. Historian Marc Becker opens with a theoretical introduction to revolutionary movements, including a definition of what “revolution” means and an examination of factors necessary for a revolution to succeed. He analyzes revolutions through the lens of those who participated and explores the sociopolitical conditions that led to a revolutionary situation, the differing responses to those conditions, and the outcomes of those political changes. Each case study provides an interpretive explanation of the historical context in which each movement emerged, its main goals and achievements, its shortcomings, its outcome, and its legacy. The book concludes with an analysis of how elected leftist governments in the twenty-first century continue to struggle with issues that revolutionaries confronted throughout the twentieth century. « less more »
Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Pages: 272Size: 6 x 9
978-1-4422-6586-8 • Hardback • June 2017 • $85.00 • (£54.95)
978-1-4422-6587-5 • Paperback • June 2017 • $30.00 • (£19.95)
978-1-4422-6588-2 • eBook • June 2017 • $28.00 • (£18.95) (coming soon)
Marc Becker is professor of Latin American history at Truman State University.
1 Theories of Revolution
Biography: José Carlos Mariátegui, 1894–1930
Document: José Carlos Mariátegui, “On the Indigenous Problem,” 1928
2 Mexican Revolution, 1910–1920
Biography: Emiliano Zapata, 1879–1919
Document: Emiliano Zapata, “Plan of Ayala,” 1911
3 Guatemalan Spring, 1944–1954
Biography: Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán, 1913–1971
Document: “Decree 900,” 1952
4 Bolivia’s Nationalist Revolution, 1952–1964
Biography: Juan Lechín Oquendo, 1914–2001
Document: The Union Federation of Bolivian Mine Workers (FSTMB),
“Pulacayo Theses,” 1946
5 Cuban Revolution, 1959–
Biography: Fidel Castro, 1926–2016
Document: “First Declaration of Havana,” 1960
6 Chilean Road to Socialism, 1970–1973
Biography: Salvador Allende Gossens, 1909–1973
Document: “Popular Unity Government: Basic Program,” 1970
7 Nicaraguan Sandinistas, 1979–1990
Biography: Carlos Fonseca Amador, 1936–1976
Document: “The Historic Program of the FSLN,” 1969
8 Guerrilla Warfare
Biography: Che Guevara, 1928–1967
Document: Che Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare, 1960
9 Venezuela’s Bolivarian Revolution, 1999–
Biography: Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías, 1954–2013
Document: Hugo Chávez, World Social Forum, 2005
10 Socialisms of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries
The diversity, drama, and sheer number of revolutionary movements in modern Latin America can be confusing for undergraduates. Becker’s new book helps cut through this confusion, with its succinct historical narratives, excellent choice of foundational primary documents, biographical sketches of central leaders (and mini-bios in the text of less-well-known female leaders), and clear and non-judgmental explanations of the ideological ‘-isms’ and strategy debates. The timelines, annotated bibliographies, discussion questions, index, and glossary are welcome additions. Becker repeatedly shows how historians themselves disagree on important aspects of revolutionary theory, which helps students realize that they too can debate and question and do the kind of research that enables them to come up with their own conclusions and arguments.
Matilde Zimmermann, Sarah Lawrence College

This lucidly written and incisive primer draws on insights from the latest theoretical and historical literature to highlight the interplay of ideology, structures, agency, and subjectivities in Latin American revolutions and revolutionary processes. Rich in primary documents, reference materials, and probing discussion questions, it is ideally suited for use in undergraduate classrooms.
Steven J. Hirsch, Washington University

Marc Becker has written not only a valuable teaching tool but also an innovative overview of revolutions in modern Latin America. Instructors and students will appreciate the accessible biographical sketches and primary documents, while scholars will learn from and discuss his views on insurgency and the state.
Charles Walker, University of California, Davis

Includes key documents that illustrate the goals and ideas of each revolutionary movement

Each case study features a biography and photograph of a principal leader

Each case study is introduced with a chronology of major events

Each chapter concludes with discussion questions, sources for further research, and an annotated list of key visual materials that depict the revolution