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Atlas of the 2012 Elections

Edited by J. Clark Archer; Fiona Davidson; Erin H. Fouberg; Kenneth C. Martis; Richard L. Morrill; Fred M. Shelley; Robert H. Watrel and Gerald R. Webster

The presidential election of 2012 was hotly contested, with polls showing President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney neck-and-neck at various points during the campaign. In the end, Democrat Obama won reelection by nearly four percentage points at the national level; he won 26 states and the District of Columbia to Republican Romney’s 24 states. Obama’s victory confirmed that the election of the first African American president in 2008 was not a fluke, suggesting that racial attitudes in the United States have indeed matured in the recent past. Bringing together leading political geographers and political scientists, this authoritative atlas analyzes and maps the campaigns, primaries, general election, and key state referenda in the 2012 elections.

The contributors offer a comprehensive and detailed assessment of a wide array of election issues and results including presidential primaries; newspaper endorsements and campaign stops; the results of the presidential election at the regional and national levels; and key voting patterns by race and ethnicity, religion, occupational groups, age, and poverty. Moving beyond the national race, the atlas examines important senatorial and gubernatorial races and considers selected state referenda including the marijuana votes in Colorado and Washington and same-sex marriage referenda in Maryland, Washington, Colorado, and Minnesota. The voting patterns identified in 2012 elections are also compared to earlier contests to provide political and geographic context over time.

Illustrated with nearly 200 meticulously drawn full-color maps, the atlas will be an essential reference and a fascinating resource for pundits, voters, campaign staffs, and political junkies alike.
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Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Pages: 320Size: 9 x 11
978-1-4422-2583-1 • Hardback • September 2014 • $79.00 • (£52.95)
978-1-4422-2584-8 • eBook • September 2014 • $77.99 • (£52.95)
J. Clark Archer is professor of geography at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Fiona Davidson is associate professor of geosciences at the University of Arkansas. Erin H. Fouberg is professor of geography at Northern State University. Kenneth C. Martis is professor of geography at West Virginia University. Richard L. Morrill is professor emeritus of geography at the University of Washington. Fred M. Shelley is professor of geography at the University of Oklahoma. Robert H. Watrel is associate professor of geography at South Dakota State University. Gerald R. Webster is professor of geography at the University of Wyoming.
Chapter 1: Introduction, J. Clark Archer, Robert H. Watrel, Fiona Davidson, Erin H. Fouberg, Kenneth C. Martis, Richard L. Morrill, Fred M. Shelley, and Gerald R. Webster
Chapter 2: Electoral Structures
Kenneth C. Martis
The Electoral College and the 2012 Presidential Election,
Barney Warf
Kenneth C. Martis
U. S. House Districts and the Republican “Gerrymander” of 2012,
Richard L. Engstrom
Phantom Constituencies and the 2012 Election,
Peter Wagner and Leah Sakala
Chapter 3: Primary Elections
Overview of the Republican Primary Elections,
Fred M. Shelley
Iowa Republican Precinct Caucuses,
Fred M. Shelley
Florida Republican Primary Election,
Fred M. Shelley
Ohio Republican Primary Election,
Fred M. Shelley
Chapter 4: The Campaign
Overview of the Campaign,
Gerald R. Webster
Donorsheds: Individual Contributions to Obama and Romney,
Carl T. Dahlman
Campaign Expenditures in the 2012 Election,
Chris Maier
Campaign Stops,
J. Clark Archer
Geographic Place Name Use in the 2012 Presidential Debates,
Matt Balentine, Justin Frazier, and Gerald R. Webster
Newspaper Endorsements,
Edward Heath Robinson and Gerald R. Webster
Ballot Access in the 2012 Election,
Edward Heath Robinson and Gerald R. Webster
Chapter 5: Outcomes
Results of the 2012 Presidential Election at the State and County Levels,
Fred M. Shelley
The 2012 Presidential Election in Historical Perspective,
J. Clark Archer, Robert H. Watrel, and Fred M. Shelley
Metropolitan Concentration of the Democratic Vote,
Richard L. Morrill and Jason Combs
Micropolitan County Voting,
Jason Combs
Politics in the Diversifying Suburbs,
Christopher Niedt
Chapter 6: Regions
William Berentsen
Kenneth C. Martis
Jonathan Leib
John Heppen
Great Plains,
Robert H. Watrel
Mountain West,
Tony Robinson
Pacific Region,
John Agnew
Chapter 7: Subgroups of the Population
Vote for President and Characteristics of United States Counties,
Richard L. Morrill
Hispanic Voting in the 2012 Presidential Election,
Ryan Weichelt
Asian-American Voting,
Wanjing Chen
The Bible Belt and the 2012 Elections,
Daniel A. McGowin and Gerald R. Webster
Religion and the 2012 Presidential Election,
Fred M. Shelley
Chapter 8: Issues
Health Care in the 2012 Elections,
Sara McLafferty
Foreign Policy in the 2012 Presidential Election,
Steven Radil
Environmental and Energy Ballot Measures in the 2012 Elections,
Barry D. Solomon and Adam M. Wellstead
Membership, Party, and Caucuses in the 113
th Congress, Erin H. Fouberg
The 2013 Farm Bill Controversy,
Erin H. Fouberg
Other Votes in the 113
th House of Representatives, Erin H. Fouberg
Chapter 9: State and Local Elections
Persistence and Change in State and Local Elections,
Richard L. Morrill
A Tale of Turnout: The Rise and Fall of Scott Brown in Massachusetts,
Annika Hagley and Joshua J. Dyck
2012 Virginia Senate Election,
John A. Wertman
2012 Indiana Senate Election,
Steven Radil
2012 Wisconsin Senate Election,
Kenneth French
2012 North Dakota Senate Election,
Robert H. Watrel
2012 Montana Senate Election,
Richard L. Morrill and Larry Knopp
Wisconsin Governor Election and Recall,
Ryan Weichelt
Texas State Senate District 10: Wendy Davis is Re-Elected,
Brooks Heitmeier
Chapter 10: Referenda
A Referendum on the Initiative Process? Ballot Initiative Usage and Content in the 2012 Election,
Joshua R. Meddaugh and Joshua J. Dyck
Votes on Same-sex Marriage in Maine, Minnesota, Maryland and Washington,
Richard Morrill, Larry Knopp, and Michael Brown
Legalization of Marijuana Use in Colorado and Washington,
Richard L. Morrill and Ben Anderstone
Votes at the Local Level: An Example from Seattle,
Richard L. Morrill
Chapter 11: Technical Issues,
Robert H. Watrel and J. Clark Archer
This geographic overview of the 2012 general election examines the process at many different stages and locations. Essays treat such topics as electoral structures—reapportionment, the Electoral College, and redistricting—and the key Republican primary elections, notably Iowa, Florida, and Ohio. Some of the 40 contributors (mostly academic geographers or political scientists) address the Obama and Romney campaigns in detail, covering donor contributions, campaign stops, the debates, and newspaper endorsements. Others examine the outcomes from regional, state, county, metropolitan, and suburban perspectives; from the point of view of Hispanic, African American, or Asian American subgroups; or in terms of religion, e.g., how the Bible Belt responded. One chapter is devoted to issues such as congressional voting on the environment, the farm bill, foreign policy, and health care. Specific state and local elections of consequence are also treated, e.g., Scott Brown in Massachusetts or the Virginia, Indiana, Wisconsin, North Dakota, and Montana Senate elections. Also covered are the key referenda of 2012, including same-sex marriage and marijuana legalization. The full-color maps are clear and numerous, and the final chapter explains the cartographic methodology. This reference tool will help readers at all levels to quickly isolate the issues of lasting importance. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Undergraduates and graduate students; general readers; professionals/practitioners

[T]he maps are well done and make this a unique work. These visualizations of county-level election data are unrivalled. . . .The Atlas of the 2012 Elections is highly recommended for students and scholars of political science and to practitioners in the field of politics and government. The pricing is accessible for many libraries – although the work is best suited to academic libraries and public libraries with patrons interested in politics and government.
Reference Reviews

Praise for Atlas of the 2008 Elections:

This beautifully executed work uses maps, charts, and text to effectively analyze and communicate the interplay of political forces and geography in the 2008 elections. The atlas is divided into 10 chapters, each with maps and commentary. Chapters 2 through 6 focus on the presidential election, describing the outcomes of the primaries and caucuses that led to the nominations of Senators Obama and McCain, their election campaigns, media coverage, and endorsements. Election results are analyzed at the state and county levels, then by region, with an emphasis on swing states. Comparisons with the 2004 election are provided. Socioeconomic indicators are examined by focusing on the extremes—the 200 counties with the highest and lowest rankings on selected variables. The resulting maps and narratives effectively portray the effect of variables such as military presence, education, in- and out-migration, employment by economic sector, creative class employment, race, ethnicity, and income on the election outcome. Chapter 7 examines selected campaigns for Senate seats and governorships, while chapter 8 discusses the geography of voting on several state referenda involving controversial issues, including same-sex marriage, abortion, and physician-assisted suicide. Chapter 9 focuses on election results at the congressional-district level and analysis of several important 2009 House votes. Finally, chapter 10 offers 10 brief scenarios about the American electoral landscape. The 200-plus maps are the heart of this work, of course, and they do not disappoint, effectively using a wide range of colors, clear captions, and a variety of mapping styles. The atlas ends with a sampling of bumper stickers and commemorative stamps that evoke nostalgia just three years after the election. The index covers, and effectively differentiates, graphs, maps, tables, and text. Much more than a reference work, this atlas will engage the casual reader as well as the political junkie. Recommended for all public, academic, and middle- and high-school libraries—many libraries will want to add a copy to their circulating collections as well.
Booklist, Starred Review

Praise for Atlas of the 2008 Elections:

Political geographers use three contexts to study elections and political behavior: demographic (men vs. women, young vs. old), where people live (urban vs. rural), and proximity (people tend to make voting decisions similar to those nearby). The 200 maps here describe an election that was historic in that it was the first election of a Presidential candidate of African American descent and was marked by an unprecedented interest and high turnout of voters and widespread use of social media. Each of these ten chapters contains maps and narrative primarily depicting voting patterns at the national level from the primaries to the final returns. There’s even a suggestion that changing Election Day to two days in September would raise turnout.
Library Journal (Reference)

Praise for Atlas of the 2008 Elections:

Brunn (Cities of the World) and coeditors Gerald R. Webster, Richard L. Morrill, Fred M. Shelley, Stephen J. Lavin, and J. Clark Archer—all professors of geography at institutions across the United States—here present ten chapters of geographical and political perspectives on the 2008 U.S. presidential election, with nods to views from other disciplines such as history, economics, and sociology. Also examined from those standpoints are six other races, including important senatorial and gubernatorial quests; eight statewide referenda; four votes of the 111th U.S. House of Representatives; and topics such as primaries, campaigns, general elections, and regional patterns. Each chapter’s accessible narrative is accompanied by several well-rendered maps (for a total of more than 200)—the combination serves to clarify issues of interest in the 2008 election in a way that is unmatched by other works. The editors close with ten scenarios that could positively influence national elections, e.g., public financing of presidential elections and abolishing the electoral college. BOTTOM LINE This title succeeds at making political geography accessible and demonstrates the power of the discipline in relation to questions of social science. It is an excellent addition to most higher education and large public library collections because of its clear, attractive visual style and easily understood information.
Library Journal

Praise for Atlas of the 2008 Elections:

A superb and richly illustrated explanation of the spatial and temporal differences in the U.S. electorate. The maps help to disentangle characteristics of the population from settlement patterns in the United States, which helps answer the perennial question of why the map of state-level election results is so red but the election is so close. It should be read by geographers, geography students, political scientists, the electorate, and the campaign staff of both major political parties.
Geographical Review

Praise for Atlas of the 2008 Elections:

An outstanding set of analyses of voting in the 2008 election and related subjects. With beautiful, provocative maps and concise, readable, and historically informed interpretations by experts, this book will be the recognized authority on the subject.
James Allen, California State University, Northridge

Praise for Atlas of the 2008 Elections:

Scholars and practitioners have long understood the interplay of political forces and geography. This dynamic was on vivid display in the 2008 presidential election, and much of it has been captured in this important new volume. Primaries and caucuses, referenda and ballot initiatives, Electoral College forces and much else, this new atlas provides those truly interested in 21st-century presidential elections a treasure trove of information. And my goodness, what maps!
Daniel M. Shea, Allegheny College