Organization of This BookChapter 1 begins with a discussion of the construction and practical uses of social indicator data and the analysis of the reliability and validity of the measures. Chapter 2, addressing the measurement of racial and ethnic inequality, is intended to provide examples of the variety of indicators that are available and that can be used to measure conditions associated with income and wealth, health care, education, and crime and punishment.Chapter 3, containing a series of statistical fallacies, paradoxes, and threats to validity, is the most significant addition to the second edition of this book.Chapter 4 applies the framework of fallacies, paradoxes, and Campbell and Ross’s threats to validity to an analysis of the effect of the Rudi Giuliani mayoralty on New York City crime rates. Chapters 5 and 6 illustrate many of the basic principles of the art and science of data presentation in tables and charts and contain several examples of bad tabular and graphic design.Chapters 7, 8, and 9 apply and illustrate the principles of the earlier chapters in more detail, focusing on the topics of voting, education, and poverty. Each of these chapters begins with a discussion of comparative international statistical measures, followed by U.S. data, and ends with evaluations of specific examples of a data-based argument.• All of the charts prepared for this book were constructed with the 2011 version of Microsoft Excel® charting software. Some charting functions shown on the charts, particularly the boxplots and the data labels shown on the scatterplots, did require the use of free downloadable add-ins. The companion website contains links to those add-ins and instructions, tips, and tricks for using Excel to do the things demonstrated in the book.