Lael Brainard was vice president and director of the Global Economy and Development Program at the Brookings Institution, where she held the Bernard E. Schwartz Chair in International Economics. Brainard served as deputy national economic adviser in the Clinton administration. Carol Graham is a senior fellow in the Economic Studies program and codirector of the Center on Social and Economic Dynamics at the Brookings Institution. Nigel Purvis is a Brookings scholar on environment, development, and global issues. Steve Radelet is a former senior fellow at the Center for Global Development. He is currently senior adviser on development in the office of U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Gayle E. Smith is a guest scholar at the Brookings Institution and formerly was senior director for African affairs at the National Security Council.