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How to Teach

A Practical Guide for Librarians

Beverley E. Crane

Paperback
eBook
Designed for any librarian who needs to teach either one person at a time or an entire class, How to Teach is a stand-alone guide to becoming proficient in teaching users how to access, evaluate, and use information. Covering both face-to-face and online teaching and learning, the book:

  • gives you just enough background on learning theory, how to plan good instruction, and how to deliver it.
  • helps you assess the advantages and disadvantages of face-to-face and online instruction and selecting the best mode for your content.
  • Illustrates instructional strategies to employ and provides model lesson plans for creating online and face-to-face instruction.
  • highlights ways of using individualized instruction either by itself or as a complement to other teaching. Examples include how to create LibGuides and videos.
  • features lesson plans with step-by-step instructions and hands on ways to create objectives, present activities, and evaluate instruction.
This book is designed for all librarians and library staff who teach as part of their role and library school students new to teaching.
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Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Pages: 198Size: 8 1/2 x 11
978-0-8108-9105-0 • Paperback • November 2013 • $65.00 • (£44.95)
978-0-8108-9106-7 • eBook • November 2013 • $64.99 • (£44.95)
Beverley E. Crane creates training materials for Dialog, including distance education online courses and self-paced modules and videos on searching techniques, and is editor of the Dialog customer e-newsletters. She is the author of four previous books, most recently Using Web 2.0 Tools and Social Networking in the K-12 Classroom (Neal-Schuman, 2012).
Preface
Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. Teaching to Learn
Objectives
Introduction
What is Learning?
General Learning Theories
How Children Learn
How Adults Learn
Library Learning Theory
Information Search Process (ISP)
Merrill’s Principles
Key Points about Learning
Learning Style Theories
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 2. Planning Instruction
Objectives
Today’s Libraries
Today’s Librarians
What is Instructional Design?
Instructional Design Models
ARCS Model
The ADDIE Model
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction
Step 1: Analysis
Step 2: Design
Step 3: Development
Step 4: Implementation
Step 5: Evaluation
Lesson Plan: Applying Gagne’s Events of Instruction
Step 1: Prepare for Learning and Motivating the Students
Step 2: Be Clear about What is to be Learned
Step 3: Integrate New Material into Existing Knowledge
Step 4: Present a Stimulus
Step 5: Provide Guidance
Step 6: Elicit Responses
Step 7: Provide Feedback
Step 8: Assess Performance
Step 9: Enhance Retention and Transfer
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 3. Implementing Instruction
Objectives
Instruction Librarians -- Trainer, Instructor, Coach, or Facilitator?
Characteristics of Successful Instruction
Best Practices for Instruction Librarians
Delivering Instruction
Instruction for Libraries
Creating Instruction
Planning the Lesson
Designing the Instruction
Step-by-Step Plan
Step 1: Plan the Lesson
Step 2: Write Objectives
Step 3: Get Learners Connected
Step 4: Chunk, Show, and Tell the Content
Step 5: Involve Learners
Step 6: Create Handouts
Step 7: Evaluate the Learning with an Action Plan
Key Points: Taking an Action Approach
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 4. Types of Instruction
Objectives
How to Design, Create, and Deliver Training
Identifying Instructional Types
First Principles of Instruction
Types of Instruction
Direct Instruction
Learner-centered Instruction
Independent Learning
Modes to Deliver Instruction
Face-to-Face Training
Classroom Instruction
Workshops
One-on-One Interactive Instruction
Small Group Work
Online Instruction
Self-paced Instruction
Tap Other Sources of Training
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 5. Face-to-Face Presentations
Objectives
Getting Ready for Face-to-Face Training: What Should You Consider?
Your Presence Counts
Make Visuals Work for You
Handouts
Instructional Strategies
Selecting a Topic for the Academic Workshop
What is Information Literacy?
Evaluation Criteria
Lesson Plan Model on Evaluating Web Sources
Step 1: Conduct a Needs Assessment
Step 2: Write the Lesson Goal and Objectives
Lesson Goal
Lesson Objectives
Step 3: Create the Instruction
Introduce the Workshop
Begin the Warm-Up Exercise
Conduct Part 1: Evaluation Criteria
Conduct Part 2: Website Evaluation
Conduct Part 3: Social Media Evaluation
Provide Follow-up: The Next Step… Step 4: Evaluate Performance
Step 5: Summary and Wrap-up
Lesson Plan Model – Small Group Instruction in the Public Library
Session 1. Learning about Blogs
Step 1: Lesson Prep Work
Step 2: Write Lesson Goal and Objectives
Step 3: Introduce the Lesson
Step 4: Create the Instruction
Session 2. Working with Blogs
Step 5: Follow-up
Step 6: Evaluate the Results
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 6. Online Instruction
Objectives
What is e-Learning?
Forms of e-Learning
Why Use e-Learning?
Advantages and Disadvantages of Webinars for a Library and its Patrons
Benefits of Online Learning
Challenges of Online Learning
Who Should Take Online Classes
Instructor as Facilitator
Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Instruction
Synchronous Instruction
Examples of Synchronous Online Learning
Example 1: Academic Library Blended Learning
Example 2: In-service Online Workshops
Example 3: Virtual Academic Information Literacy Course
Creating Synchronous E-Learning Lessons
Tips for Designing Synchronous Instruction
Asynchronous Instruction
Examples of Asynchronous, Self-directed Learning
Example 1: Shoreline Community College Library Technology Center
Example 2: Academic Self-directed Tutorial
Example 3: Public Library Online Course
Creating Asynchronous, Self-Paced Instruction
Step 1: Consider the Design
Step 2: Assess Needs to Develop the Content

Step 3: Decide on the Content of the Self-paced Course or MaterialStep 4: Outline the Content

Step 5: Select Learner Activities

Step 6: Storyboard How the Course Will Look

Step 7: Use Software to Create the Material

Step 8: Evaluate the CourseKey Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 7. Synchronous Instruction
Objectives
Characteristics of Successful Webinars
Creating Synchronous, E-Learning Lessons
Planning Your Online Instruction
Step 1: Determine the Type of Instruction to Use
Step 2: Assemble Your Team
Step 3: Determine the Format
Step 4: Plan Your Visuals
Selecting Learning Management Systems (LMS)
Blackboard
WebEx
Moodle
Adobe® Acrobat™ Connect Pro
Tegrity
Tips for the Instructor
Preparing to Teach Virtual Sessions
Introductory Online Lesson
Step 1: Select an Activity
Step 2: Write Goal and Objectives
Goal
Objectives
Step 3: Pre-planning Your Course
Step 4: Begin the Learning Activities
Activity 1: Identify and use the Blackboard LMS Features
Activity 2: Identify Copyright Violations and Legal Uses
Step 5: Evaluate What Was Learned
e-Learning Strategies
Virtual Lesson Plan for Special Libraries
Step 1: Write General Goals and Specific Objectives
Goals
Objectives
Step 2: Gather Materials
Step 3: Create Sample Activities
Activities to Introduce the Lessons
Activities to Use During Lesson 1
Activities to Use During Lesson 2
Activities to Use During Lesson 3
Step 4: Evaluate What Was Learned
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 8. Asynchronous Instruction
Objectives
Types of Self-paced Materials
Considerations When Using Video
Advantages
Disadvantages
Video as a Teaching Tool
Pre-planning the Video
Using Video Software
Beginning Production
Publishing the Video
Online Search Aids
LibGuides
LibGuide Models for Special, Academic, and Public Libraries
Pinterest
Other Materials
Video Lesson
Preproduction: Getting Started with Video
Step 1: Identify Goals and Objectives for the Video
Step 2: Review Materials
Step 3: Create a Storyboard and Script
Step 4: Create the Video Using Captivate
Step 5: Test and Revise the Video
Step 6: Putting It All Together
Step 7: Evaluate What Was Learned
LibGuide Lesson: Integrating Modes of Instruction
Workshop 1
Step 1: Preplanning the Workshop
Step 2: Introduce the First Workshop
Step 3: Begin the Warm-Up Exercise
Step 4: Conduct Part 1 of the Workshop
Step 5: Follow-up – The Next Step
Webinar 1
Step 1: Work through Activity 1
Step 2: Begin Activity 2 in Groups
Step 3: Return to Main Room for Activity 3
Step 4: Present Demonstration
Step 5: Wrap up the Webinar
Webinar 2
Step 1: Start Creating the LibGuide
Step 2: Review LibGuide as a Whole Class
Step 3: Wrap up the Webinar
Workshop 2
Step 1: Review Final Project
Step 2: Evaluate What Was Learned
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 9. What’s Ahead for the Instruction Librarian?
What to Expect
Promote Library Services and Programs
References
Further Reading

Index
About the Author

Preface
Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. Teaching to Learn
Objectives
Introduction
What is Learning?
General Learning Theories
How Children Learn
How Adults Learn
Library Learning Theory
Information Search Process (ISP)
Merrill’s Principles
Key Points about Learning
Learning Style Theories
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 2. Planning Instruction
Objectives
Today’s Libraries
Today’s Librarians
What is Instructional Design?
Instructional Design Models
ARCS Model
The ADDIE Model
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction
Step 1: Analysis
Step 2: Design
Step 3: Development
Step 4: Implementation
Step 5: Evaluation
Lesson Plan: Applying Gagne’s Events of Instruction
Step 1: Prepare for Learning and Motivating the Students
Step 2: Be Clear about What is to be Learned
Step 3: Integrate New Material into Existing Knowledge
Step 4: Present a Stimulus
Step 5: Provide Guidance
Step 6: Elicit Responses
Step 7: Provide Feedback
Step 8: Assess Performance
Step 9: Enhance Retention and Transfer
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 3. Implementing Instruction
Objectives
Instruction Librarians -- Trainer, Instructor, Coach, or Facilitator?
Characteristics of Successful Instruction
Best Practices for Instruction Librarians
Delivering Instruction
Instruction for Libraries
Creating Instruction
Planning the Lesson
Designing the Instruction
Step-by-Step Plan
Step 1: Plan the Lesson
Step 2: Write Objectives
Step 3: Get Learners Connected
Step 4: Chunk, Show, and Tell the Content
Step 5: Involve Learners
Step 6: Create Handouts
Step 7: Evaluate the Learning with an Action Plan
Key Points: Taking an Action Approach
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 4. Types of Instruction
Objectives
How to Design, Create, and Deliver Training
Identifying Instructional Types
First Principles of Instruction
Types of Instruction
Direct Instruction
Learner-centered Instruction
Independent Learning
Modes to Deliver Instruction
Face-to-Face Training
Classroom Instruction
Workshops
One-on-One Interactive Instruction
Small Group Work
Online Instruction
Self-paced Instruction
Tap Other Sources of Training
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 5. Face-to-Face Presentations
Objectives
Getting Ready for Face-to-Face Training: What Should You Consider?
Your Presence Counts
Make Visuals Work for You
Handouts
Instructional Strategies
Selecting a Topic for the Academic Workshop
What is Information Literacy?
Evaluation Criteria
Lesson Plan Model on Evaluating Web Sources
Step 1: Conduct a Needs Assessment
Step 2: Write the Lesson Goal and Objectives
Lesson Goal
Lesson Objectives
Step 3: Create the Instruction
Introduce the Workshop
Begin the Warm-Up Exercise
Conduct Part 1: Evaluation Criteria
Conduct Part 2: Website Evaluation
Conduct Part 3: Social Media Evaluation
Provide Follow-up: The Next Step… Step 4: Evaluate Performance
Step 5: Summary and Wrap-up
Lesson Plan Model – Small Group Instruction in the Public Library
Session 1. Learning about Blogs
Step 1: Lesson Prep Work
Step 2: Write Lesson Goal and Objectives
Step 3: Introduce the Lesson
Step 4: Create the Instruction
Session 2. Working with Blogs
Step 5: Follow-up
Step 6: Evaluate the Results
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 6. Online Instruction
Objectives
What is e-Learning?
Forms of e-Learning
Why Use e-Learning?
Advantages and Disadvantages of Webinars for a Library and its Patrons
Benefits of Online Learning
Challenges of Online Learning
Who Should Take Online Classes
Instructor as Facilitator
Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Instruction
Synchronous Instruction
Examples of Synchronous Online Learning
Example 1: Academic Library Blended Learning
Example 2: In-service Online Workshops
Example 3: Virtual Academic Information Literacy Course
Creating Synchronous E-Learning Lessons
Tips for Designing Synchronous Instruction
Asynchronous Instruction
Examples of Asynchronous, Self-directed Learning
Example 1: Shoreline Community College Library Technology Center
Example 2: Academic Self-directed Tutorial
Example 3: Public Library Online Course
Creating Asynchronous, Self-Paced Instruction
Step 1: Consider the Design
Step 2: Assess Needs to Develop the Content

Step 3: Decide on the Content of the Self-paced Course or Material
Step 4: Outline the Content
Step 5: Select Learner Activities
Step 6: Storyboard How the Course Will Look
Step 7: Use Software to Create the Material
Step 8: Evaluate the Course
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 7. Synchronous Instruction
Objectives
Characteristics of Successful Webinars
Creating Synchronous, E-Learning Lessons
Planning Your Online Instruction
Step 1: Determine the Type of Instruction to Use
Step 2: Assemble Your Team
Step 3: Determine the Format
Step 4: Plan Your Visuals
Selecting Learning Management Systems (LMS)
Blackboard
WebEx
Moodle
Adobe® Acrobat™ Connect Pro
Tegrity
Tips for the Instructor
Preparing to Teach Virtual Sessions
Introductory Online Lesson
Step 1: Select an Activity
Step 2: Write Goal and Objectives
Goal
Objectives
Step 3: Pre-planning Your Course
Step 4: Begin the Learning Activities
Activity 1: Identify and use the Blackboard LMS Features
Activity 2: Identify Copyright Violations and Legal Uses
Step 5: Evaluate What Was Learned
e-Learning Strategies
Virtual Lesson Plan for Special Libraries
Step 1: Write General Goals and Specific Objectives
Goals
Objectives
Step 2: Gather Materials
Step 3: Create Sample Activities
Activities to Introduce the Lessons
Activities to Use During Lesson 1
Activities to Use During Lesson 2
Activities to Use During Lesson 3
Step 4: Evaluate What Was Learned
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 8. Asynchronous Instruction
Objectives
Types of Self-paced Materials
Considerations When Using Video
Advantages
Disadvantages
Video as a Teaching Tool
Pre-planning the Video
Using Video Software
Beginning Production
Publishing the Video
Online Search Aids
LibGuides
LibGuide Models for Special, Academic, and Public Libraries
Pinterest
Other Materials
Video Lesson
Preproduction: Getting Started with Video
Step 1: Identify Goals and Objectives for the Video
Step 2: Review Materials
Step 3: Create a Storyboard and Script
Step 4: Create the Video Using Captivate
Step 5: Test and Revise the Video
Step 6: Putting It All Together
Step 7: Evaluate What Was Learned
LibGuide Lesson: Integrating Modes of Instruction
Workshop 1
Step 1: Preplanning the Workshop
Step 2: Introduce the First Workshop
Step 3: Begin the Warm-Up Exercise
Step 4: Conduct Part 1 of the Workshop
Step 5: Follow-up – The Next Step
Webinar 1
Step 1: Work through Activity 1
Step 2: Begin Activity 2 in Groups
Step 3: Return to Main Room for Activity 3
Step 4: Present Demonstration
Step 5: Wrap up the Webinar
Webinar 2
Step 1: Start Creating the LibGuide
Step 2: Review LibGuide as a Whole Class
Step 3: Wrap up the Webinar
Workshop 2
Step 1: Review Final Project
Step 2: Evaluate What Was Learned
Key Points
Exercises: Now You Try It…
References
Further Reading

Chapter 9. What’s Ahead for the Instruction Librarian?
What to Expect
Promote Library Services and Programs
References
Further Reading

Index
About the Author

Crane (Dialog Information Systems; Using Web 2.0 and Social Networking Tools in the K-12 Classroom) offers practical advice to librarians faced with teaching an array of information literacy workshops. She begins by presenting summaries of various learning and pedagogic theories, from B.F. Skinner to Jean Piaget. (During her discussion of learning styles, she acknowledges that there are objections to learning style theory, but she does not cite specifics.) The next few chapters provide planning and implementation tips. Chapters four through eight outline types of instruction, including face-to-face and synchronous and asynchronous online instruction. The final chapter wraps up with what the future may hold for library instruction. The theories and principles highlighted in the first chapter are used throughout the book with practical examples. Each chapter begins with objectives and ends with key points, websites for more information, exercises, references, and further reading. The book also contains sample handouts and workshops. VERDICT As Crane states, 'Learning is complex,' which makes effective teaching a challenge. Her book is a serious attempt to make it an easier task. Recommended for teaching librarians both newly minted and experienced.
Library Journal


The Practical Guide for Librarians series, of which this title belongs to, is designed to give librarians practical and innovative solutions to the everyday problems they face that can drain them of time and resources. The guides provide step-by-step plans for librarians brand new to the role of teaching customers how to access, evaluate, and use information. How to Teach explains to readers the theory behind delivering good instruction; helps them identify whether face-to-face or online instruction will be more effective for their users; shows them how to develop successful instruction; demonstrates ways to use individualized instruction; and provides advice on how to create objectives, present activities, and evaluate instruction. The work takes the reader through the steps of effective teaching. Library instruction is becoming a basic component of many library positions these days and this book will greatly assist those that are new to teaching and instruction. The suggestions can be adapted to fit face-to-face instruction as well as online instruction, making this volume a useful tool for any library manager looking to provide assistance to their staff in the area of teaching.
American Reference Books Annual


How to Teach: A Practical Guide for Librarians is a valuable resource for librarians who are new to teaching, as the author has included an array of important topics, including some that are rarely touched upon in this type of book. It is also a good refresher for librarians who are experienced teachers. It is lucidly written, and the author has provided a number of avenues and resources to spur further exploration. And the icing on the cake? It addresses the needs of librarians in public and special libraries, as well as academic libraries.
Trudi E. Jacobson, Distinguished Librarian and Head of the Information Literacy Department, University at Albany


I wish I had How to Teach: A Practical Guide for Librarians as a resource when I started my career! In the first week at my first professional job, I was asked to present a course on MARC coding to other librarians. With no prior experience in teaching a class, I had to learn by trial and error. Starting with an overview of the context for adult learning, this book offers clear, practical advice on instructional techniques, plus examples and resources for creating course content and engaging students. What an invaluable resource for librarians, or indeed for professionals of any kind, who want to develop their teaching skills or learn how to communicate information more effectively.
Libby Trudell, former executive and current consultant with ProQuest Dialog


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