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The Invisible Art of Film Music

A Comprehensive History, Second Edition

Laurence E. MacDonald

Beginning with the era of synchronized sound in the 1920s, music has been an integral part of motion pictures. Whether used to heighten the tension of a scene or evoke a subtle emotional response, scores have played a significant—if often unrealized—role in the viewer’s enjoyment.

In The Invisible Art of Film Music, Laurence MacDonald provides a comprehensive introduction for the general student, film historian, and aspiring cinematographer. Arranged chronologically from the silent era to the present day, this volume provides insight into the evolution of music in cinema and analyzes the vital contributions of scores to hundreds of films.

MacDonald reviews key developments in film music and discusses many of the most important and influential scores of the last nine decades, including those from Modern Times, Gone with the Wind, Citizen Kane, Laura, A Streetcar Named Desire, Ben-Hur, Lawrence of Arabia, The Godfather, Jaws, Ragtime, The Mission, Titanic, Gladiator, The Lord of the Rings, Brokeback Mountain, and Slumdog Millionaire. MacDonald also provides biographical sketches of such great composers as Max Steiner, Alfred Newman, Franz Waxman, Bernard Herrmann, Elmer Bernstein, Henry Mancini, Maurice Jarre, John Barry, John Williams, Jerry Goldsmith, Dave Grusin, Ennio Morricone, Randy Newman, Hans Zimmer, and Danny Elfman.

Updated and expanded to include scores produced well into the twenty-first century, this new edition of The Invisible Art of Film Music will appeal not only to scholars of cinema and musicologists but also any fan of film scores.
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Scarecrow Press
Pages: 624Size: 7 x 10
978-0-8108-9058-9 • Hardback • May 2013 • $133.00 • (£85.00)
978-0-8108-8397-0 • Paperback • May 2013 • $72.00 • (£47.95)
978-0-8108-8398-7 • eBook • May 2013 • $69.99 • (£47.95)
Laurence E. MacDonald is professor emeritus at Mott Community College.

List of Biographical Sketches

•••••••World War II and Its Aftermath••••••
Prelude Radio Television Popular Music Movies
1940 Erich Wolfgang Korngold: The Sea Hawk Charlie Chaplin: The Great Dictator Franz Waxman: Rebecca Short Cuts
1941 Bernard Herrmann: Raising Kane Alfred Newman: How Green Was My Valley Miklós Rózsa: Films about Women Short Cuts
1942 Hollywood Goes To War Herbert Stothart: Mrs. Miniver More Patriotic Films Bernard Herrmann: The Magnificent Ambersons Erich Wolfgang Korngold: Kings Row Miklós Rózsa: The Jungle Book Max Steiner: Now, Voyager Short Cuts
1943 Alfred Newman: The Song of Bernadette Max Steiner: Casablanca Miklós Rózsa: Five Graves to Cairo Short Cuts
1944 David Raksin: Laura Max Steiner: Since You Went Away Erich Wolfgang Korngold: Between Two Worlds Short Cuts
1945 Miklós Rózsa and the Theremin Bernard Herrmann: Hangover Square Short Cuts
1946 Hugo Friedhofer: The Best Years of Our Lives Erich Wolfgang Korngold: Deception Roy Webb: Music for Thrillers Short Cuts
1947 Bernard Herrmann: The Ghost and Mrs. Muir Miklós Rózsa: Crime Films Short Cuts
1948 Ralph Vaughan Williams: Scott of the Antarctic Brian Easdale: The Red Shoes Max Steiner: Johnny Belinda and The Treasure of the Sierra Madre Short Cuts
1949 Aaron Copland: The Brooklyn Stravinsky The Three Godfathers: Still Scoring after All These Years Short Cuts
Postlude The End of the Golden Age Endnotes

••••••The Decline of the Studio System••••••
Prelude Popular Music Television Movies
1950 Hollywood At Midcentury Franz Waxman: Sunset Blvd. Dimitri Tiomkin: Cyrano de Bergerac and D.O.A. Alfred Newman: All about Eve Short Cuts
1951 Alex North: A Streetcar Named Desire Bernard Herrmann: The Day the Earth Stood Still Dimitri Tiomkin: From Sci-Fi Film to Thriller Short Cuts
1952 Dimitri Tiomkin: High Noon Victor Young: From Scaramouche to The Greatest Show on Earth Short Cuts
1953 Alfred Newman: The Robe Bernard Herrmann: Three Action Potboilers Miklós Rózsa: Three Historical Dramas Short Cuts Footnote to 1953
1954 Leonard Bernstein: On the Waterfront Alfred Newman and Bernard Herrmann: An Unusual Partnership Short Cuts
1955 Leonard Rosenman: From East Of Eden To Rebel Without A Cause Bernard Herrmann: From The Kentuckian To The Trouble with HarrY Elmer Bernstein: The Man with the Golden Arm George Duning: Picnic Walter Schumann: The Night of the Hunter Short Cuts
1956 Victor Young: Around the World in 80 Days Elmer Bernstein: The Ten Commandments Dimitri Tiomkin: Giant and Friendly Persuasion Short Cuts
1957 Franz Waxman: The Pinnacle of His Career Malcolm Arnold: The Bridge on the River Kwai Short Cuts
1958 Bernard Herrmann: Great Collaborations Jerome Moross: The Big Country New Kids on the Block Short Cuts
1959 Miklós Rózsa: Ben-Hur Bernard Herrmann: Journey to the Center of the Earth and North by Northwest Adolph Deutsch: Some Like It Hot Jazz At The Movies: Duke Ellington and John Lewis Short Cuts
Postlude Two Rising Stars Endnotes

••••••The Changing of the Guard••••••
Prelude Popular Music Television Movies
Elmer Bernstein: The Magnificent Seven Scores for Historical Epics André Previn: Elmer Gantry Short Cuts
The Henry Mancini-Blake Edwards Collaboration Miklós Rózsa: Scoring Samuel Bronston’s Epics Elmer Bernstein: Both in and out of the Saddle Short Cuts
The New Wave Maurice Jarre: Lawrence of Arabia Two by Elmer Bernstein Two by Bernard Herrmann Short Cuts Footnote to 1962
John Addison: Tom Jones Alfred Newman: How the West Was Won Short Cuts Footnote to 1963
Laurence Rosenthal: Becket Malcolm Arnold: The Chalk Garden Short Cuts
Maurice Jarre: Doctor Zhivago Music for Epics Short Cuts
Jerry Goldsmith: A Composer for All Seasons Bernard Herrmann: Fahrenheit 451 Short Cuts
Lalo Schifrin: Cool Hand Luke Quincy Jones: Scoring Hot and Cold Ennio Morricone: Three Spaghetti Westerns New Directions in Film Music Short Cuts
John Barry: The Lion in Winter Nino Rota: Romeo and Juliet Jerry Goldsmith: Planet Of The Apes Marvin Hamlisch: The Swimmer Short Cuts Footnote to 1968
John Williams: The Reivers Burt Bacharach: Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid Short Cuts
Postlude Passing the Torch Endnotes

•••••The Influence of Synthesized Sound•••••
Prelude New Technology Popular Music Television Movies
John Barry: Raise the Titanic and Somewhere in Time John Williams: The Empire Strikes Back John Morris: The Elephant Man Short Cuts
Dave Grusin: On Golden Pond John Williams: Raiders of the Lost Ark Randy Newman: Ragtime Vangelis: Chariots of Fire Some Things Borrowed, Some Things New: Excalibur Short Cuts
Basil Poledouris: Conan the Barbarian John Williams: E.T. the Extra-terrestrial Jerry Goldsmith: Poltergeist Short Cuts
Bill Conti: The Right Stuff Jerry Goldsmith: From Under Fire to Twilight Zone: The Movie Short Cuts
Randy Newman: The Natural Maurice Jarre: A Passage to India and Dreamscape Short Cuts
Popular Music in Films Bruce Broughton: From Small Screen to Big Screen Short Cuts
Ennio Morricone: The Mission Jerry Goldsmith: Hoosiers Short Cuts
John Williams: Empire of the Sun A Multicultural Score: The Last Emperor Peter Martin and Borrowed Classical Themes: Hope and Glory Short Cuts
Alan Silvestri: Who Framed Roger Rabbit Danny Elfman: Beetlejuice Hans Zimmer: Rain Man Short Cuts
James Horner: Field of Dreams Patrick Doyle: Henry V John Williams: Born on the Fourth of July Short Cuts
Postlude An Emphasis on Youth Endnotes

••••••••The Rise of Independent Films••••••••
Prelude Popular Music in Films Television Movies
John Barry: Dances with Wolves Danny Elfman: Edward Scissorhands Randy Newman: Avalon and Awakenings Short Cuts
Alan Menken: Beauty and the Beast James Newton Howard: The Prince of Tides Michael Kamen: Robin Hood-Prince of Thieves Elmer Bernstein: From Rambling Rose to Oscar Short Cuts
Jerry Goldsmith: From Basic Instinct To Forever Young Trevor Jones and Randy Edelman: The Last of the Mohicans Short Cuts
Patrick Doyle: Another Great Collaboration Elmer Bernstein: The Age of Innocence and The Good Son John Williams: Jurassic Park and Schindler’s List Short Cuts
Hans Zimmer: The Lion King Alan Silvestri: Forrest Gump James Horner: Legends of the Fall and Clear and Present Danger Short Cuts
Michael Kamen: Mr. Holland’s Opus Two Categories of Film Scores Short Cuts
Elliot Goldenthal: Michael Collins Mark Isham: Fly Away Home Gabriel Yared: The English Patient Short Cuts
Danny Elfman: From Men in Black to Good Will Hunting John Williams: From Rosewood to Amistad James Horner: The Devil’s Own and Titanic Minimalism in Film Music Short Cuts
Bruce Broughton: Lost (and found) in Space Nicola Piovani: Life is Beautiful James Horner: From Deep Impact To Mighty Joe Young Short Cuts Honorable Mentions
John Corigliano: The Red Violin James Newton Howard: From The Sixth Sense To Snow Falling On Cedars Jerry Goldsmith: From The Mummy To The 13th Warrior Thomas Newman: American Beauty And The Green Mile Short Cuts Honorable Mentions Postlude End of the Century: Veteran Composers Vs. Newcomers

••••••The Derivative Decade•••••••••
Prelude Popular Music Television Movies
James Newton Howard: An Unbreakable Collaboration James Horner: From A Perfect Storm to The Grinch Hans Zimmer: Gladiator Tan Dun: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon Short Cuts Honorable Mentions
James Horner: From Iris to A Beautiful Mind John Williams: Music for Robots and Wizards Howard Shore: Scoring a Tolkien Saga Short Cuts Honorable Mentions
The Williams/Spielberg Collaboration Continues James Newton Howard: From Signs to Treasure Planet Jerry Goldsmith and Elmer Bernstein: Still Going Strong Howard Shore: Continuing the Lord of the Rings Saga Short cuts Honorable Mentions
Howard Shore: Lord of the Ring Hans Zimmer: Music for Africans, Samurais, and Pirates Four Scores by James Horner Clint Eastwood as Composer: Mystic River Short cuts Honorable Mentions Footnote to 2003
Alexandre Desplat: Giving Birth James Newton Howard: From Hidalgo to Collateral John Williams: Music for Harry Potter and Tom Hanks Howard Shore: Scoring The Aviator Short Cuts Honorable Mentions Footnote to 2004
End of the Star Wars Saga John Williams: Still more Spielberg Scores Replacement Composers Two Composers for One Superhero Mark Isham: Taking A Crash Course Shot cuts Honorable Mentions
A Touch Of Glass Three Scores By Alexandre Desplat Two Scores By James Newton Howard Three By Zimmer Two By Mychael Danna Short Cuts Honorable Mentions Footnote
New Musical Voices from Europe: Dario Marianelli Nicholas Hooper: A New Voice for Harry Potter Michael Giacchino: A New Voice for Pixar Marco Beltrami: A New Voice for Westerns and Die Hard Films Short cuts Honorable Mentions
The Son Also Rises: Thomas Newman Alexandre Desplat: Music for a Curious Film A. R. Rrahman: Music for a Slumdog Film Michael Giacchino: Music for a Scoreless Film Short Cuts Honorable Mentions
Michael Giacchino: From Video Games to the Oscar James Horner: Scoring Avatar Hans Zimmer: Scoring Music for Super Sleuths Alexandre Desplat: Scoring in Several Genres Marco Beltrami: Scoring the End of the World Short Cuts Honorabale Mentions Postlude

General Index
Index of Titles
Index of Names
About the Author
Music plays an important part in the movies by underscoring emotions, heightening drama, and offering context to just about any and every scene. But most moviegoers rarely give film scores much thought—it is background, after all. This impressive text provides a comprehensive, chronological introduction to the art of film scoring, showcasing key developments of some of the most important films from 1920 to 2009, with an epilogue that takes a peek at 2010–12. Biographical sketches of 52 composers are featured as sidebars throughout the text. An extensive bibliography, general index, and title index complete the volume. Recommended for most large public libraries and for academic libraries supporting film-studies and music-composition programs.

The second edition of this film history (1st ed., 1998) covers music scored for such films as Brokeback Mountain, Unbreakable, Sweeney Todd, Nine, and others released between 2000 and 2011. Biographical information about composers appears in sidebars, allowing the text to focus more on the history and details of the composers' film music. MacDonald offers an engaging study that presents important information about the history of film music. The book gives considerable attention to the three "godfather" Hollywood composers--Max Steiner, Dimitri Tiomkin, and Alfred Newman--but covers film composers, their scores, and their stylistic features for every decade. Composers such as Aaron Copland, whose output was mostly outside film scoring, are also included. Despite its title, however, much of the book is devoted to Hollywood film music. With its stronger analytic approach, Music and Cinema, edited by James Buhler, Caryl Flinn, and David Neumeyer, is geared more toward music majors. This volume will be useful for general readers interested in film music history and for undergraduates with no previous musical background. Summing Up: Recommended. Lower-division undergraduates and general readers.

MacDonald updates his work The Invisible Art of Film Music: A Comprehensive History, in this second edition. This version includes the additions of 1998 to 2012, expanded articles and commentary, and photographs of composers. The work begins with a brief introduction of the early years of film history, followed by a chronological history of film music. Among the films and events of each year are 52 corresponding composer biographies, which MacDonald calls “biographical sketches,” of film music’s most influential and prominent composers, from Max Steiner to Michael Giacchino. The title concludes with an epilog that highlights the first few years of the current decade. A volume of this size, more than 600 pages, requires significant indexing. Although the general index is quite short, the title index and name index are substantial and invaluable. MacDonald does a great job organizing the book in a way that makes it valuable as a reference tool or as a cover-to-cover read. VERDICT A great resource for the general student or historian of music or film interested in the greatest and most influential movies and events of film music history.
Library Journal

When the 1st edition of this history of Hollywood film music appeared in 1998, one reviewer called it 'the best (history) available in the market.' In this 2d edition, the author, a retired college professor, has expanded coverage to 2012. As in the 1st edition, a chronological arrangement is used to cover composers and their scores written as background music for films (Hollywood musicals like Singin' in the Rain are excluded). After a chapter on music that was used to accompany the silent films, each of the chapters that follows cover a decade of film history. These chapters begin with an overview of the decade, followed by year-by-year coverage. For each year, the author highlights a few outstanding scores and their composers, followed by a section, 'Short Cuts,' that mentions briefly a few other important film scores. For example, in the section '1939,' Max Steiner's score for Gone with the Wind and Aaron Copeland's Of Mice and Men, get extensive coverage and brief mention is made of other film scores of the year by such composers as Erich Korngold and Dimitri Tiompkin. Each entry discusses both the music and the film (e.g., brief plot outlines). Coverage is nontechnical and anecdotal, often bordering on entertainment gossip. Scattered throughout the text are page-long profiles (each with a photograph) of 102 important composers beginning with Max Steiner and ending with Michael Giacchino, who composed the score for the 2009 animated feature Ratatouille. Each chapter also contains a list of sources used in the text. The book ends with an extensive six-page bibliography of books and articles on the subject of film music, followed by three indexes: the first on general topics, the second of film titles, and the third of names (because of the book's chronological arrangement the use of this index is essential to trace a composer's output). The book is both informative and entertaining. . . .[T]he present volume is also an excellent source of information on this subject.
American Reference Books Annual