This is a multi-author work which examines the cultural dimensions of the relations between East Asia’s two great powers, China and Japan, in a period of change and turmoil, from the late nineteenth century to the end of the Second World War. This period saw Japanese invasion of China, the occupation of China’s North-east (Manchuria) and Taiwan, and war between the two nations from 1937-1945; the scars of that war are still evident in relations between the two countries today.
In their quest for modernity, the rulers and leading thinkers of China and Japan defined themselves in contradisctinction to the other, influenced both by traditional bonds of classical culture and by the influx of new Western ideas that flowed through Japan to China. The experiences of intellectual and cultural awakening in the two countries were inextricably linked, as our studies of poetry, fiction, philosophy, theatre, and popular culture demonstrate. The chapters explore this process of “transculturation” – the sharing and exchange of ideas and artistic expression – not only in Japan and China, but in the larger region which Joshua Fogel has called the “Sinosphere,” an area including Korea and parts of Southeast Asia with a shared heritage of Confucian statecraft and values underpinned by the classical Chinese language.
The authors of the chapters, who include established senior academics and younger scholars, and employ a range of disciplines and methodologies, were selected by the editors for their expertise in particular aspects of this rich and complex cultural relationship. As for the editors: Richard King and Cody Poulton are scholars and translators of Chinese literature and Japanese theatre respectively, each taking a historical and comparative perspective to the study of their subject; Katsuhiko Endo is an intellectual historian dealing with both Japan and China.
About the editors:
Richard King is Professor of Chinese at the University of Victoria, specializing in modern and contemporary Chinese fiction and popular culture. He is the editor of Art in Turmoil: the Chinese Cultural Revolution 1966-76 (2010) and co-editor of Global Goes Local: Popular Culture in Asia (2002), the translator of Liu Sola's novel Chaos and All That (1994), and Zhu Lin's Snake's Pillow and Other Stories (1998), editor and co-translator of Heroes of China’s Great Leap Forward (2010), and the editor and co-translator of Living with Their Past: Post-Urban Youth Fiction by Zhang Kangkang (2003).
Katsuhiko Endo is assistant professor of modern Japanese history at the University of Victoria, Canada. He is editor and translator of Rekishi to Kioku no Koso [The Struggle Between History and Memory] (2010), Harry Harootunian’s collection of essays on postwar Japan, and wrote the forward for that work. He is currently working on his book, titled Empire State of Mind, Volume I: Fukushima, Japanese Baseball, and World History.
Cody Poulton is Professor of Japanese literature and theatre at the University of Victoria, Canada. His recent publications include Spirits of Another Sort: The Plays of Izumi Kyoka (2001), twenty entries on modern Japanese theatre for The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance (2003) and A Beggar's Art: Scripting Modernity in Japanese Drama, 1900-1930 (2010). He has also been active as a translator of kabuki and modern Japanese drama, for both publication and live stage productions in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and Japan. He is currently working (with Mitsuya Mori and J. Thomas Rimer) on The Columbia Anthology of Modern Japanese Drama.
About the contributors:
Michael K. Bourdaghs is associate professor in East Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago. He is the author of The Dawn That Never Comes: Shimazaki Toson and Japanese Nationalism (2003) and Sayonara Amerika, Sayonara Nippon: A Geopolitical Prehistory of J-pop(2011), as well as the editor of The Linguistic Turn in Contemporary Japanese Literary Studies: Politics, Language, Textuality (2010) and of the English translation of Kamei Hideo's Transformations of Sensibility: The Phenomenology of Meiji Literature (2002).
Leo Ching is Chair and associate professor in the Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies at Duke University. He is the author of Becoming “Japanese”: Colonial Taiwan and the Politics of Identity Formation (University of California Press, 2001; Chinese and Japanese translations are available from Maitian chuban and Blues Interactions). His writings have appeared in Public Culture, boundary 2, positions: an East Asian cultural critique, and several other edited volumes. He is currently completing a book manuscript on anti-Japanism in postwar postcolonial Asia and popular culture.
Annika A. Culver serves as assistant professor of Asian History and Asian Studies Coordinator at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. She has also taught at the University of Chicago, Skidmore College, and Beijing University, with research interests in Japanese cultural imperialism, and Sino-Japanese cultural history. Her forthcoming book, Japanese ‘Avant-Garde’ Propaganda in Manchukuo: Modernist Reflections of the New State, 1932-1945 (University of British Columbia Press), investigates how formerly left-oriented Japanese writers, artists, and photographers mobilized their talents to produce multivalent works depicting Japanese development and labor in occupied northeast China after a tour or sojourn. Culver has published articles and reviews in History Compass, US-Japan Women’s Journal, Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs (SJEAA), Journal of North Carolina Historians, and Perspectives. Culver’s next project, Consuming the West: Sino-Japanese Consumption of Wine, Cigarettes, and Soap from the 1880s-1938, examines from a cultural history standpoint this triad of “Western” commodities symbolizing a progressive modernity for urban middle-class Chinese and Japanese during a period of rising nationalisms in East Asia.
Siyuan Liu is an Assistant Professor of Theatre at the University of British Columbia. He has published widely on twentieth-century Chinese and Japanese theatre and other topics in academic journals such as Theatre Journal, TDR, Asian Theatre Journal, Text & Presentation, and Journal of The National Academy of Chinese Theatre Arts (in Chinese) and book anthologies such as Avant-Garde Performance and Material Exchange: Vectors of the Radical and Asian Canadian Theatre: New Essays on Canadian Theatre Vol. 1. He is a guest editor of the First Generation Asian Theatre Scholars series for Asian Theatre Journal (Fall 2011) and the President of Association for Asian Performance (2011-2013).
Richard John Lynn, retired Professor of Chinese thought and literature, University of Toronto, is Professor Emeritus in the Department of East Asian Studies. He is a Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. His publications include Kuan Yün-shih (1286-1324) (Twayne, 1980), Chinese Literature: A Draft Bibliography in Western European Languages (Australian National University Press, 1980), Guide to Chinese Poetry and Drama (G. K. Hall, 1984), The Classic of Changes: A New Translation of the I Ching as Interpreted by Wang Bi (Columbia University Press, 1994), The Classic of the Way and Virtue: A New Translation of the Tao-te ching of Laozi as Interpreted by Wang Bi (Columbia University Press, 1999); editor, James J. Y. Liu, Language—Paradox— Poetics: A Chinese Perspective (Princeton University Press, 1988). He has authored more than 100 book sections, journal articles and reviews, many on pre-modern Chinese poetry and poetics, literati culture, intellectual history and the visual arts. His current works include a translation and study of the Daoist classic, Zhuangzi, with the commentary of Guo Xiang (d. 312) (Columbia University Press), and a study of Huang Zunxian’s literary experiences in Japan (1877–1882).
Viren Murthy teaches Chinese and Japanese history at the University of Ottawa. His primary interest is in modern Chinese and Japanese intellectual history and the problems of global capitalist modernity. His book, The Political Philosophy of Zhang Taiyan: The Resistance of Consciousness, was published by Brill in 2011.
Atsuko Sakaki is Professor in the Department of East Asian Studies and a member of the Centre for Comparative Literature at the University of Toronto. Her most recent publications include “The Face in the Shadow of the Camera: Corporeality of the Photographer in Kanai Mieko’s Narratives,” Mechademia 7 (Fall 2012), "Tanizaki Jun'ichiro, or Photography as Violence," Japan Forum (2010), "Taming of the Strange: Arakida Rei Reads and Writes Stories of the Supernatural," in Peter Kornicki, Gaye Rowley, and Mara Patessio, eds., The Female as Subject: Reading and Writing in Early Modern Japan (Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 2010) and “Kaisetsu: Yume no hon to soine shite,” in Kanai Mieko, Kishibe no nai umi (Kawade bunko, 2009). She is also the author of Obsessions with Sino-Japanese Polarity in Japanese Literature (Hawai’i, 2005) and Recontextualizing Text: Narrative Performance in Modern Japanese Fiction (Harvard, 1999), and translated and edited The Woman with the Flying Head and Other Stories by Kurahashi Yumiko (M.E. Sharpe, 1998). Currently she is working on three book projects, Corporeality and Spatiality in Modern Japanese Literature (Gotô Meisei, Abe Kôbô, Hasegawa Shirô, Horie Toshiyuki), Photographic Rhetoric in Modern Japanese Fiction (Tanizaki, Abe, Mishima, Kanai, and Horie) and translation of short stories by Horie Toshiyuki.
Karen Thornber is Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies of Comparative Literature at Harvard University. Her research and teaching focus on world literature and the literatures and cultures of East Asia. Her first book, Empire of Texts in Motion: Chinese, Korean, and Taiwanese Transculturations of Japanese Literature (Harvard, 2009), won two major international awards: the 2011 John Whitney Hall Book Prize from the Association for Asian Studies, for the best book on either contemporary or historical topics in any field of the Japanese humanities or social sciences; and the International Comparative Literature Association's 2010 Anna Balakian Prize, for the best book in the world in the field of Comparative Literature published in the last three years by a scholar under age 40. Empire of Texts in Motion explores interactions among the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese literary worlds in the Japanese empire (1895-1945). Professor Thornber's second book, Ecoambiguity: Environmental Crises and East Asian Literatures (forthcoming, Michigan, 2011) analyzes how literatures from East Asia and other parts of the world depict the ambiguous interactions between people and their biophysical environments. A third book, Texts in Turmoil: Global Health and World Literature (currently in preparation) analyzes twentieth-century cultural flows between East Asia and South and Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.
Yiman Wang is Assistant Professor of Film & Digital Media at the University of California, Santa Cruz. His research and teaching interests include early cinema, border-crossing film remakes, transnational Chinese cinemas, DV image-making in contemporary China, ethnic star studies, theories of translation, postcolonialism, race and gender. His scholarly writings have appeared in Quarterly Review of Film and Video, Film Quarterly, Camera Obscura, Journal of Film and Video, Literature/Film Quarterly, Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique, Journal of Chinese Cinemas, Chinese Films in Focus: 25 New Takes (Chris Berry ed. 2003), Stardom and Celebrity: A Reader (Sean Redmond et. al. eds. 2007), Violating Time: History, Memory, and Nostalgia in Cinema (), Christina Lee ed. 2008), Idols of Modernity: Movie Stars of the 1920s (Patrice Petro ed. 2010), The New Chinese Documentary Film Movement: For the Public Record (Chris Berry, Lü Xinyu, and Lisa Rofel eds. 2010), Cinema at the City’s Edge: Film and Urban Networks in East Asia (Yomi Braester and James Tweedie eds. 2010). His recently-completed book project is entitled Remaking Chinese Cinema: Shanghai-Hong Kong-Hollywood since the 1920s.
Elizabeth Wichmann-Walczak is Professor of Asian Theatre in the University of Hawai‘i at Manoa Department of Theatre & Dance. While carrying out the field research for her doctoral dissertation (Nanjing 1979-81), she became the first non-Chinese to perform Jingju (Beijing/Peking “opera”) in the People’s Republic of China. Since that time she has written & published on the performance structure & aesthetics of Chinese theatre, including the recent “King Lear at the Shanghai Jingju Company: Dream of the King of Qi,” in Alexander Huang & Charles Ross’ Shakespeare in Hollywood, Asia, & Cyberspace. She has also translated & directed one modern, two “newly-written historical/mythological,” & four classical Jingju plays taught to University of Hawai‘i students by major Jingju artists from China; at Chinese invitation, three classical productions have been presented in mainland China. Dr. Wichmann-Walczak is the first honorary (& first non-Chinese) member of the National Xiqu (“Chinese opera”) Institute and of the Chinese Theatre Artists Associations of Shanghai & Jiangsu Province. She has been awarded the National Xiqu Music Association’s Kong Sanchuan award for excellence in research, creation, & performance, as well as the National Festival of Jingju’s Golden Chrysanthemum Award for outstanding achievements in promoting & developing Jingju.
Introduction, Richard King and Cody Poulton
Section I: A Shared Heritage
Chapter 1: Richard John Lynn, Straddling the Tradition-Modernity Divide: Huang Zunxian (1848-1905) and His Poems on Miscellanous Subjects from Japan
Chapter 2: Atsuko Sakaki, Waves from Opposing Shores: Exchanges in a Classical Language in the Age of NationalismChapter 3: Faye Yuan Kleeman, Pan-Asian Romantic Nationalism: Revolutionary, Literati, and Popular Oral Tradition and the Case Of Miyazaki Toten
Section II: Confrontations with the Modern
Chapter 4: Viren Murthy, On the Emergence of New Concepts in Late Qing China and Meiji Japan: The Case of Religion
Chapter 5: Karen L. Thornber, Collaborating, Acquiescing, Resisting: Early Twentieth Century Chinese Transculturation of Japanese Literature
Chapter 6: Siyuan Liu, Lu Jingruo and the Earliest Transportation of Western-Style Theatre from Japan to China
Section III: The Culture of Occupation
Chapter 7: Yiman Wang, Affective Politics and the Legend of Yamaguchi Yoshiko/ Li Xianglan
Chapter 8: Michael Bourdaghs, Japan’s Orient in Song and Dance
Chapter 9: Annika A. Culver, Manchukuo and the Creation of a New Multi-Ethnic Literature: Kawabata Ysunari’s Promotion of “Manchurian” Culture
Section IV: Coming to Terms with History
Chapter 10: Leo Ching, Colonial Nostalgia or Postcolonial Anxiety: The Dosan Generation In-Between “Restoration” and “Defeat”
Chapter 11: Cody Poulton, The Road Taken, Then Retraced: Morimoto Kaoru’s A Woman’s Life and Japan in China
Chapter 12: Elizabeth Wichmann-Walczak, Re-acting an Actor’s Reaction to the Occupation: the Beijing Jingju Company’s Mei Lanfang
Chapter 13: Richard King, “But Perhaps I Did Not Understand Enough”: Kazuo Ishiguro and Dreams of Republican Shanghai